Major Vanilla diseases are:-
1.Vanilla Root rot: Fusarium sp., Sclerotium sp.
- Browning of roots leading to rotting and decay.
- Yellowing of leaves stems and leaves becoming flaccid, shrivelled and giving a drooping appearance.
- Cut and remove the affected roots, reduce mulch.
- Soil drench and spray the plant with 0.2 % Copper oxychloride @ 2 or 3 litres per plant.
2.Vanilla Stem rot: Fusarium sp.
- Water soaked lesions giving the stem a brown coloured appearance resulting in rotting of tissues leaves turning yellowish and drying off.
- Cut and remove the affected portion
- Spray 0.2% Carbendazim, repeat spray after one month.
3.Vanilla Bean rot: Phytophthora sp.
- Rotting and shedding of beans
- Spray 0.1% Carbendazim and 1 % Bordeaux mixture alternatively at weekly intervals
4.Vanilla Shoot tip rot: Fusarium, Sclerotium
- Decaying of shoot tip and leaves at the tip
- Spray 0.1% Carbendazim at 15 days interval.
5.Vanilla mosaic: Vanilla mosaic virus
- Mosaic pattern or mottling on foliage.
- Stunting sterility and leaf distortion
- Uproot and destroy the affected plant
Important Prophylactic Measures
- Timely shade management
- Avoid excess moisture
- Allow free movement of air
- Avoid overcrowding of vines by keeping adequate spacing
- Avoid excessive manuring and use of fresh cow dung.
- Apply recommended doses of bio agents like Trichoderma, Pseudomonas, Bacillus etc.
- Avoid excessive mulching during rainy season and mulching with materials that are not easily decomposed
- Collect and destroy the parts of plants showing disease symptoms.
To prevent the chances of multiplication of these fungi and spread of these diseases, the following should be adhered to,
- Avoid excessive use of manure, mulch and irrigation
- Cut and remove disease affected plant parts and burn them.
- Do not use planting materials procured from infected gardens.
- Avoid close planting of vines and over crowding. Follow the recommended spacing.
- Viral disease affected vines should be uprooted and burnt.
- Do not use implements, which have been used on disease-affected plants on healthy plants without thoroughly washing and cleaning them.
- TamilNadu Agritech Portal