Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.,) is an important cash crop cultivated in India in an area of 5.04 m.ha with a production of 340.56 m.t. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area with almost 50 percent of the cane area in the country, followed by Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Haryana and Punjab. Sugarcane production is also highest in Uttar Pradesh followed by Maharashtra. Productivity wise, Tamilnadu stands first with over 108 tonnes per hectare followed by Karnataka and Maharashtra. Bihar has the lowest productivity among the major sugarcane growing states.
The productivity of Goa is 53-55 t/ha. Long hours of sunshine and cool nights with clear skies are highly favourable for sugar accumulation. This is why average recoveries of Maharashtra and Gujarat are highest in the country. In Goa, sugarcane is presently grown over an area of approximately 912 ha. The annual production of cane in Goa is about 49,108 tonnes with an average productivity of 53-55 m.t/ha with a recovery of8.5 percent (2010- 2011), which is very low.
Goa has a sugar factory with a crushing capacity of 1.75 to 2 lakh tonnes of cane annually. Thus the present availability of cane meets less than half of the requirement of the factory. This deficit is met by bringing cane from neighbouring states, which is not only uneconomical but detrimental to the interest of local growers. Thus, there is tremendous scope to produce this cane locally by adopting technology package strategy.
Further, there is a scope for bringing additional area under this cash crop especially in command areas of Salaulim and Anjunem irrigation projects. Stepping upper unit productivity of both plant as well as ratoon cane to a minimum level of 75-100 mt/ha is possible by following sound management practices and making available all the critical inputs like quality planting material, irrigation water, machinery in time and strengthening extension services.
The sugarcane grower faces several constraints which come in the way of boosting sugarcane production and in attaining the desired level of sugar in the cane at the field level. These constraints are social, administrative, climatic, managerial or agronomic and technical. In this bulletin, an attempt has been made to briefly discuss the climatic, agronomic and technical constraints….read more
As sugarcane is a commercial crop and the lonely sugar factory in Goa needs to be replenished with the raw material on a continuous basis, identification of location-specific planting season based on the requirement of cane needs attention. To enhance the crushing period, there is a necessity of identification and cultivation of short, medium and long duration varieties. A scientific approach to a season of planting so as to enhance the period of cane availability is essential….read more
1.Cut the cane with a sharp knife. Occasionally disinfect the knife with B. 2% phenol solution.
2. Dip the setts In 1.2% solution of Carbendizim (50g Bavistin In 100 litres water) for 20-30 minutes before planting. Add I kg lime to this solution to enhance germination….read more
Sugarcane in Goa is infested by following pests and diseases. Their nature of damage and control measures are suggested below:
1.Sugarcane Wooly aphid
Sugarcane woolly aphid is a foliage sucking pest. Wooly aphid earlier was known to be a minor pest in India but has now assumed the status of an economic pest after its severe outbreak in Maharashtra during July 2002….read more
In Goa, 65-70 percent of the area under sugarcane is retained as ratoon crop. Ratooning offers many advantages in the economy of cultivation since it saves the cost of procurement and preparation of setts, land preparation, planting, etc. The productivity and quality of ratoon crop in Goa are very poor since most of the ratoons are neglected or subjected to mismanagement…..read more
- Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa