Livestock production is steadily gaining importance in India and it is considered to be an integral part of rural economy. Livestock farming provides regular income to the farmer landiess poor. Poor landless families who can not keep one or two dairy animals, small ruminants like sheep and goat form their livelihood. India has a total of 180.90 million small ruminant population which comprises of 123 million goats. The demand for meat and meat products each increasing.
Among the meat products, goat meat is popular, costlier and fetches good return for the farmer. There is no social taboo for goat raising and chevon consumption. India ranks first in the world in goat population. The economic value of goats can also be realized from the continuously increasing trend in their population during last 40 years, in spite of more than 1/3’d population being slaughtered for meat and skin every year.
Around 410 million kgs of goat meat, 1900 kg of milk, 100.9 million kgs of skin and 85000 metric tons of manure are available annually. Goat is a versatile animal. It is known as the ‘poor man’s cow’ in India and as ‘wet nurse’ of infants in Europe. Goat milk is cheap, wholesome, easily digestible and nutritious. It is recommended for use in dyspepsia, peptic ulcer and pyloric stenosis. It is preferred to cow milk in
The economic value of goats can also be realized from the continuously increasing trend in their population during last 40 years, in spite of more than 1/3’d population being slaughtered for meat and skin every year. Around 410 million kgs of goat meat, 1900 kg of milk, 100.9 million kgs of skin and 85000 metric tons of manure are available annually. Goat is a versatile animal. It is known as the ‘poor man’s cow’ in India and as ‘wet nurse’ of infants in Europe. Goat milk is cheap, wholesome, easily digestible and nutritious.
It is recommended for use in dyspepsia, peptic ulcer and pyloric stenosis. It is preferred to cow milk in liver dysfunction, jaundice, biliary disorders, acidosis and insomnia. Goats are litter bearing animal since they give twin or triplets two times in a year, indicating its prolificacy. Goat milk is nutritious due to its nature of grazing tree leaves and herbs. The milk is easily digestible due to smaller fat globules, with 4.9% fat, 9.3% solid-not-fat (SNF), 4.33% protein and 0.877% ash. The ash content of goat milk is high indicating the mineral status of milk. Goat, in general, is a hardy animal and is adaptable to various climatic conditions.
Since goat is commonly reared in a small herd, it can also form an ideal component under watershed management. Integration of the different components like crop and horticulture, recycling manure and use of crop residues as local resources will enhance productivity. Available shrubs and tree leaves like Subabul, drumstick, bamboo leaves etc. in the watershed area can be fed with minimum concentrate feed of 0.3kg/day for an animal. The West Coast region having plenty of shrubs and tropical rainforest offer better scope for rearing goats.
Advantages of Goat Rearing
1) Goat meat has a good potential market value.
2) There is no social taboo for the goat meat.
3) It provides self-employment for the rural mass..
4) The manure can be added to the soil as a nutrient for enrichment.
5) Prolificacy of goat is good.
6) Unwanted weeds and vegetable wastes can be converted into useful animal protein.
7) Goat milk also provides income to the farm family.
To ascertain the present status of goat rearing in Goa, an investigation was undertaken through a research project “Investigation on the present status of Goats” by ICAR Research Complex for Goa during 2001-2006…read more
Goats can be kept with little expense. Marginal or undulating lands unsuitable for other types of livestock may be used and any inexpensive shelter can suffice..read more
There are about 13 well-known Indian goat breeds, apart from a number of local non-descript animals scattered throughout the country…read more
It was observed during the investigation that the number of units is becoming less in Goa due to restriction on free range grazing… read more
Selection of doe is very important as it is the nucleus of a productive herd. Doe with good body development is essential for high milk production..read more
In Goa, the goats are mainly brought from Karnataka and Maharashtra for slaughter. Cleanliness and hygiene maintenance helps -to reduce diseases to a large extent..read more
The number of units is declining in Goa due to:
1.Restrictions on grazing (urbanisation, intensive cultivation, mining and industrial activities).
2. Non-availability of monetary help is a constraint since the majority of the goat farmers are landless poor.
3. Communication and approach roads are yet another constraint. Most of the units are located in remote areas.
4. In none of the units, supplementary feeding of concentrates is practised. Training on alternate methods of rearing goats to improve the growth rate and to adopt disease control measures is essential.
5. a) 80% of the farmers stay as tenants.
b) Some are nomads in forest land
c) Some as tenants in private land orTemple land.
d) Goats are reared by a particular community
1. Goat rearing can be considered as a potential component for the livelihood of landless poor and marginal farmers as well as under watershed management for increasing the productivity.
2. An area of 3 square meters for the buck and 2 square meters for the Doe will be sufficient. Thatched house with an elevated floor, 1.5 meters above ground level is ideal to keep the pen dry and airy.
3. Any nonpoisonous weed even thorny bushes are relished by a goat.
4. A concentrate feed mixture containing 45% maize, 35% wheat bran, 17% oil cake, 2% mineral mixture and 1% salt can be given at the rate of 300 gm per day per animal in addition to partial grazing on top feed and shrubs.
5. The urine and waste materials will be an added benefit for crop cultivation through soil enrichment.
- Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa