Sorghum diseases and their control

Major Sorghum diseases are given below:-

1.Sorghum Head Smut: Sphacelotheca reiliana

sorghum head smut
Symptoms:
  • The entire ear head is either completely or partially replaced by a large whitish gall.
  • The spores are blown away, exposing the dark filaments
Management:
  • In the areas where the disease occurs commonly, the best practice is to plant resistant cultivars
  • Seed treatment with Carboxin (Vitavax) @ 2g/kg of seed.
  • Collect smutted ear heads in cloth bags and dip in boiling water to remove inoculum.

 

2.Sorghum Covered Kernel Smut: Sphacelotheca sorghi

Sorghum covered kernel smut

Symptoms:
  • The individual grains are replaced by smut sori. Sori are covered with creamy skin. Sori can be localised at a particular part of the head or can occur over the entire inflorescence.
  • Ratoon crops exhibit a higher disease incidence
Management:
  • Seed treatment with Carboxin (Vitavax) @ 2g/kg or Captan/Thiram 4g/kg of seed.
  • Collect smutted ear heads in cloth bags and destruct by dipping in boiling water.
  • Avoid rationing

 

3.Sorghum Long Smut: Tolyposporium ehrenbergii 

sorghum long smut

Symptoms:
  • The relatively small proportion of the florets is infected.
  • The sori or spore sacs are cylindrical, elongate, usually slightly curved with a relatively thick creamy-brown covering membrane.
Management:
  • Seed treatment with Carboxin (Vitavax) @ 2g/kg or Captan/Thiram 4g/kg of seed.
  • Collect smutted ear heads in cloth bags and destruct by dipping in boiling water.
  • Avoid rationing.

 

4.Sorghum Loose smut: Sphacelotheca cruenta

sorghum loose smutSymptoms:
  • The sori, which vary in length from 3 to 18 mm, is the solid long black (often curved) pointed columella which extends almost the full length of the sorus and which remains conspicuous after the smut spores have been blown away.
Management:
  • Seed treatment with Carboxin (Vitavax) @ 2g/kg or Captan/Thiram 4g/kg of seed.
  • Collect smutted earheads in cloth bags and destruct by dipping in boiling water.
  • Avoid rationing.

 

5.Sorghum Downy Mildew: Peronosclerospora sorghi

sorghum downy mildew

Symptoms:
  • Abundant downy white growth is produced nocturnally on the under surfaces of infected portions of leaves during humid weather
Management:
  • Rogue infected plants up to 45 days of sowing
  • Spray any one of the fungicides like Metalaxyl + Mancozeb 500 g or Mancozeb 1000g/ha after noticing the symptoms of foliar diseases, for both transplanted and direct sown crops.

 

6.Sorghum Rust: Puccinia purpurea

sorghum Rust

Symptom:
  • The pustules are elliptical and parallel with the leaf veins.
  • In highly susceptible cultivars the pustules occur so densely that almost the entire leaf tissue is destroyed.
Management:
  • Spray Mancozeb at 1kg/ha. Repeat fungicidal application after 10 days

 

Source-

  • TamilNadu Agritech Portal