Tuberose is best suited for cultivation in tropical to subtropical and temperate climates. Prefers to grow in an open sunny location, away from the shade of trees. It requires warm and humid climate although flowering is profuse under mild weather. In India, commercial cultivation of tuberose is confined to warm high areas with average temperature ranging from 20° to 30°C. The crop is reported to flower profusely throughout the year if the climate is mild and free from extremes of high and low temperature. If the temperature is above 40°C, the length of the spike and quality of the flowers are severely affected.
Very low temperature and incidence of frost will damage the plants and flowers. Tuberoses grow well in a sunny situation and should not be grown on the shady or semi-shady situation which drastically reduces the flower yield. Humidity and temperature are the two main factors responsible for increasing or decreasing the production of tuberose. Tuberose although not strictly photosensitive, long-day exposure promotes vegetative growth as well as the early emergence of the first flower spike and also increases flower spike length.
Tuberose can be grown on a wide variety of soils ranging from light, sandy loam to a clay loam. It can
Also be successfully grown as a commercial crop even in those soils which are affected by salinity and alkalinity conditions if better agronomical practices are adopted. The soil should be at least 45 cm deep, well drained, friable, rich in organic matter and nutrients with plenty of moisture in it. Tuberose should be grown in well-drained place. The crop is sensitive to water stagnation, and it cannot tolerate water logging even for a short period. So it is very essential to ensure proper drainage or else to plant should be done on the bund. Fertile, loamy and sandy soils having a pH in the range of 6.5 to 7.5 with good aeration and drainage are ideal for tuberose cultivation. A place protected from strong winds is preferable.
Selection of site
Tuberose is a sun-loving plant. For attaining good vegetative growth and maximum yield of flowers, a site should be chosen, where the plants will get plenty of sun throughout their growing period. The soil should have sufficient moisture holding capacity. A place protected from strong wind, hot and cold waves is preferable, so that there is no damage of flower stalk. In the shady situation, the plants grow tall and lanky, and the flowering is adversely affected. They are highly susceptible to water stagnation and poor drainage conditions and hence require well drained and aerated soil.
Field or land Preparation
The land should be ploughed deep to a good tilth, 2-3 times, to a depth of 30 – 45 cm. The first ploughing should be done in January. The field is left exposed to the sun for at least 15 days that destroys the weeds and insect pests. The second ploughing can be done about a month before planting. At the time of the second ploughing, well rotten farmyard manure at the rate of 50 tonnes per hectare should be incorporated into the soil. Then, the soil is brought to a fine tilth by breaking the clods and removing the weeds. After field preparation, plots of convenient sizes should be prepared with irrigation channels, ridges, and furrows at the recommended spacing.
Season of planting
Well-developed spindle-shaped bulbs, with diameter 1.50 cm and above forming at the outer periphery of the clump, are considered ideal for planting. Tuberoses are generally and April-May in the hills. The bulbs can also be planted during July – August. To obtain flowers almost throughout the year, later planting can be practiced. Freshly harvested tuberose bulbs can be used for planting 4 – 5 weeks after harvesting. Planting fresh bulbs leads to profuse vegetative growth and poor flowering.
“Tuberose — Vikaspedia.” Vikaspedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sep. 2017 <http://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/crop-production/package-of-practices/flowers/tuberose>.
Tuberose — Vikaspedia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/crop-production/package-of-practices/flowers/tuberose
- Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa