Sapota cultivation / Sapota farming-Andhra Pradesh


The total area under sapota in Andhra Pradesh is about 18.73 thousand hectares with estimated annual production of 1.87 lakh tonnes.

Climate requirement for growing Sapota(Chikoo)

Sapota is a tropical fruit crop and can be grown from sea level up to 1200m. At still higher elevations fruit quality and tree health suffer. It preferred a warm and moist weather and grown in both dry and humid areas. The coastal climate is best suited.  

Soil requirement

Can grow on all types of soils with sufficient drainage, but light soils are preferable. It can tolerate high pH and EC and suitable for poor soils and sandy soils and should not contain high lime content and hard pan in sub-soils.

Varieties of Sapota(Chikoo)

1.Cricket Ball

The leaves are light green. This bears the largest sized fruits which are round. The pulp is gritty and granular and not very sweet.


It has dark green, broad and thick leaves, spreading branches. Fruits are oval shaped, less seeded with a sweet, mellow flesh of excellent quality. The fragrance is mild. Each fruit has 1-4 seeds. Fruits appear singly. The main harvest is in winter.

3.Calcutta Round

Fruits large, fruit skin soft, pulp moderately smooth, with medium quality, susceptible to leaf spot diseases.


The fruits are small to medium sized and oval egg-shaped, with apex, broadly pointed and are very sweet. The bearing is heavy, and fruits are borne in clusters. The fruit has thin skin and of good flavour.


On the find, 4-6 ridges are seen. Fruit skin is rough, medium thick and buff colored, and pulp is sweet. Fruit apex is rounded. The fruits can be transported to distant markets.


The fruits resemble those of Cricket Ball but smaller in size, fruits have a sweet pulp.


It is a clonal selection from Guthi. A mean yield of 3547 fruits (236 kg) can be obtained per tree per year. The tree is dwarf statured and adaptable to southern and central districts. Fruits are of two shapes viz., round and oval. The skin is very thin, and the pulp has a buttery consistency. High average yielder with medium size fruits. Average fruit weight is 100g.


It is a hybrid between Guthi x Cricket Ball. The variety is adaptable to tropical plants of Tamil Nadu and yields 14t/ha. The fruits bear in clusters with oval shaped large fruits. The vertical growth habit of the tree allows high-density planting. The fruits mature earlier than other varieties in the season thus fetching a higher return. The variety is tolerant to leaf spot and leaf Webber.


This is a cross between Kalipatti and Cricket Ball. The tree is vigorous, bearing oblong to oval fruits with high yield. The fruits are very sweet, having a soft, mellow flesh with TSS of 26O brix. The color of the pulp is light orange. Average fruit weight is 154 g.


 The tree is broadly pyramidal with dense horizontal branching. The fruit shape is acorn with an average weight of 92 g. The flesh color is brown, sweet in taste and granular. The TSS of the fruits is 23.0O brix.



By veneer grafting on Rayans or Khirnee (Manikara hexandra) rootstock.


Light soils      —       10mx10m

Heavy soils    —       13mx13m

Planting of Sapota(Chikoo)

Prepare land by ploughing and harrowing. Dig pits of above 1m x 1m x 1m at a distance of 10m x 10m or 13m x 13m apart. Fill the pits with top soil and mixed with 25 kg FYM, 2 kg Single Super Phosphate and 100 g Folidol dust. Plant the grafts in the middle of the pit keeping graft joint above the ground level. After planting staking should be done for proper support. The planting should be done during rainy or winter season.

Manures and fertilizers for Sapota(Chikoo)

Apply F.Y.M   50 kgs/plant before planting and every year after planting. Manure the plants at the beginning of rainy season.  The fertilizers should be applied in 20-30 cm deep and 30cms wide along the drip line of the tree.


          Age of the tree Nitrogen Phosphorus Potash
             (grams /tree)  
1-3 Years 50 25 75
4-6 Years 100 40 150
7-10 years 200 80 300
11 years and onward 400 160 450


Bromocil @ 3 kgs a.i /ha proved to be the best herbicide for controlling both broad-leaved weeds and grasses and was effective for a period six months.

Vegetables and other field crops can be grown as intercrops in the first 6 to 7 years.  Application of SADU at 100ppm applied before flowering stage results in higher fruit set and NAA at 300ppm after set results in better fruit retention.

Irrigation of Sapota(Chikoo)

When plants are young, irrigation may be given throughout the year depending upon soil condition.  In a later stage, during summer, irrigation should be given at 20-25 days interval and in winter at 30 to 35 days interval.  Excess irrigation results in flower and fruit shedding and also a large number of misshapen fruits and fasciations of shoots.

Harvesting of Sapota(Chikoo)

The fruit nearing physiological maturity sheds off the brown scaly scurf from the skin.  At this stage, fruits become corky brown in color with intermixed yellowish tinge.  Such fruits a yellow steak when scratched with a finger nail, and show practically no green tissue or later.

The main harvesting season is March – June. Fruits are obtained during September-October and December if irrigated. Fully grown tree (>20 years age) can give >10,000 kg/ha

 Sapota yield per acre

Bearing starts from 4th year onwards, and economical yields can be obtained from 7th year. Plants flower almost throughout the year. It takes about 4 to 6 months from flowering to fruit maturity. Although sapota flowers and fruits throughout the year, there are two distinct seasons of harvest viz., March to May and September to October. The fruits harvested during March to may will be sweet. The fruits will have to be harvested when they develop dull brown potato color. Yields increase gradually with age as follows.

4-5th year      –         250 fruits per plant

6-7th year      –         800 fruits per plant

8-20th year     –         1500 to 2000 fruits per plant

By 30th year   –         2500 to 3000 fruits per plant.

Plant Protection

Pests of Sapota (Chikoo)

Sapota does not suffer from serious pests and diseases.

1.Leaf Webber (Nephopteryx eugraphella)

It is a serious pest. Larvae feed on leaves, but also feed on buds and flowers and sometimes bore into fruits. They web together a bunch of leaves and feed on chlorophyll leaving behind a fine network of leaf veins. A cluster of dried leaves hanging on webbed shoots is an indication of attack of the pest. Active throughout the year with peak activity during June-July.


Remove leaf webs and spray Monocrotophos 1.6 ml or Endosulfan 2ml or Chloropyriphos @ 2ml/lit at regular intervals is recommended.

2.Fruit borer (Anarsia achrasella Bradley)

 Damage is caused by boring into fruits and feeding inside the pulp


Removal of fallen fruits and burning them. Spraying of Endosulfan @ 2 ml/l or Carbaryl @ 3 g/l

3.Mealy bugs (Planococus citri, P. lilacinus)

Damage is caused by sucking of sap from fruits near the stalk. Nymphs and adult females suck sap from tender leaves, shoots, and inflorescence. Young leaves become curled, twisted and malformed; severe infestation affects its fruiting capacity. The insects excrete large quantities of honeydew which attracts ants and sooty mold.


Spraying of Acephate @ 2 g/l or Spirotetramat @ 0.3 ml/l

 Diseases of Sapota (Chikoo)

1. Leaf spot (Phleopheospora indica)

Reddish brown circular spots.


This may be effectively controlled by a monthly spray of Zineb at 0.2% or Cuman L or Rovral 2g/lit or Dithane M-45 @ 3g/lit of water during rainy season.




“Package of Practices in Important Horticultural crops of A …” Course Hero. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May. 2017 <>.


Package of Practices in Important Horticultural crops of A … (n.d.). Retrieved from


  • Dr.Y.S.R. Horticulture University, Andhra Pradesh.
Show Buttons
Hide Buttons