The crop is cultivated in rainfed lowlands to an extent of 1/3 of total rice area in the State. The crop growing period under this situation is relatively longer (130-135 days) and in general, the productivity levels are higher.
Jaya and Jyoti are the predominant varieties grown in Kher lands. Cultivation of improved varieties has proven yield increase over the ruling varieties. The following improved varieties are suitable for cultivation in Goa.
Nursery: Seedlings are raised either by the dry or wet method.
1) Dry Nursery
Plough the field 3-4 times at intervals b of four to five days on receipt of first showers. Apply 200-300 kg cow dung manure for every 100 sq.m nursery area, 2-3 weeks before sowing. Apply 1-2 kg Urea, 1.5 kg Mussoriephos and 1.5 kg Muriate of Potash per 100 sq.m, harrow and level the field.
Prepare raised beds 1 to 1.5 m wide, 15 cm in height and of convenient length, keeping 30 cm wide channel all around to facilitate drainage. Select seeds of a suitable variety. Use 60-65 kg seeds for 1000 sq.m area either by broadcast or sowing in close lines and cover them with a thin layer of soil. Irrigate the nursery bed frequently. Hand weed once, 15-20 days after germination. The seedlings will be ready for transplanting 20-25 days after sowing. Provide adequate irrigation to make the soil sufficiently wet to prevent damage to the roots while uprooting.
|Variety||Grain type||Duration||Yield Potential (t1ha)|
|1) Karjat- 3||Short Bold||115-120||6.0-6.3|
|2) KRH-2(Hybrid)||Medium Slender||125–130||6.5-7.3|
|3) Revati (M.O-17) Red||Kernelled Bold||125–130||4.5-5.0|
|4) ) Sahyadri-1 (Hybrid)||Medium Slender||130-135||6.5-7.5|
|5) Pusa Sugandh-5||Scented Long Slender||115-120||4.5–4.7|
Prepare the seedbed 30 days before planting. Plough twice in the dry condition and puddle it subsequently by ploughing in the standing water (5-6 cm), three to four times at intervals of 5-6 days.
Level the field perfectly after final puddling and prepare raised beds of 1-1.5 m width and of convenient length, leaving 30 cm channel in between two beds. Total seed bed nursery area should be 10% of the main filed (i.e. 1000 sq. m area will be required for planting one-hectare land).
Fertilize the nursery beds with 1-2 kg of Urea, 2.5 kg Mussoriephos and 1.5 kg Muriate of Potash for every 100 sq. m area before final levelling of nursery beds.
Select suitable high yielding variety seeds through use of the salt solution and seed treatment. About 60 kg seeds are sufficient for nursery area of 1000 sq. m, enough to transplant one-hectare land. Soak the seeds in water for 24 hours by placing in gunny bags and incubate for 48 hours beneath straw with the occasional sprinkling of water. Broadcast germinated seeds uniformly over the prepared seedbed and maintain water to a depth of of2.5 cm with occasional draining offield. Top dress the nursery seedbed with I to 1.5 kg Urea for every 100 m2, at least 6 days before transplanting. Hand weed once after a fortnight of seedling emergence. The seedlings so raised are ready for transplanting, 21-25 days after germination. At the time of uprooting, the nursery bed should be sufficiently wet to avoid root damage.
Dapog Nursery Rising
For use of paddy transplanter, the Dapog nursery is required. To transplant, one-hectare paddy about 100 kg of seeds is required for the nursery. Nursery raising has to be done in the field by polythene sheets using pre-germinated seeds covered with hay to prevent bird damage.
Main Field Preparation
Ploughing should start with the first shower of monsoon to a depth of 15 cm with the help of power tiller or mould board plough. Apply well-decomposed FYM (10 mt) after the first ploughing. This operation is to be completed at least 15 days before sowing of the seed. Green manures (finely chopped) like Glyricidia (grown on bunds /fences), Dhaincha etc. or any biomass from major weeds on uplands like Eupatorium be incorporated as per availability. A good puddling by churning the soil with water will favour better water management and in turn good crop growth. Proper levelling and bunding should be ensured for better water and soil conservation.
Sowing / Planting
Direct seeding either by dibbling of seeds in dry soil at 20 X 15 cm spacing or plough sole placement before onset of regular monsoon is recommended. Pre-germinated seeds can be broadcasted on a level surface after puddling and maintain a thin film of water. In a transplarited crop, the seedlings need to be planted at the age of 21-25 days on a puddled soil with 3-4 seedlings/ hill at a spacing of 20 x 10 cm ensuring atleast 50 hills / sq.m. Shallow transplanting favours more tillering and consequently higher yield.
Manures and Fertilizers
FYM @ 10 mt / ha or any other available organic / green manure can be incorporated 2-3 weeks before sowing.
Apply Rock Phosphate @ 45 kg/ha atleast one week before sowing both as a source of phosphorus and as soil conditioner.
-lOO:50:50 kg NPK / ha. Apply all phosphate (P20), 50% nitrogen (N) and 50% potash (K20) as basal dose at the time of sowing or transplanting. After 25-30 days, apply 25% nitrogen as first top dressing. Later, in another 20-25 days, apply balance 25% nitrogen and 50% potash as second top dressing. Weed
the field and drain water wherever possible before top dressing. Type of fertilizer and its quantity can
be chosen from any of the combination given below. Use of a combination of straight fertilizers is economical, with better crop response.
Weed infestation is a chronic problem in rice cultivation. The loss caused by weeds ranges from 30-40% including quality deterioration of the grain. The first 35-40 days of the crop is the critical period for weed competition. The weeds can be effectively controlled by using Cono weeder (low cost manually operated interculture implement) in line sown crops with the availability of thin film of water in the field. Herbicide formulations like Butachlor 5 G @ 20 kg / ha or Benthiocarb 20 G can be mixed with water and blanket spray with high volume sprayer three days after sowing is recommended.
Granular herbicides are convenient to apply as it eliminates the use of spray pump. Alternatively, the selective herbicides like Benthiocarb 50 EC @ 3.0 litres / ha or Butachlor 50 EC @ 3.0 litres/ha or Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 3.0 litres/ha or Anilophos 30 EC @ 1.0 litre / ha can be used. Benthiocarb is preferred as it also bhas a post emergent effect on weeds upto n1-2 leaf stage besides killing germinating weed seeds. Alterna ti vely, mIX the above formulation with 80-90 kg of fine sand and broadcast evenly in the field. For use of granular herbicides application, drain the water from the field.
In low land, where there is standingwater, broadcast Benthiocarb lOG granules, a week after direct sowing or within 8 days of transplanting. Maintain 3-5 cm of water level in the field after granular application so that soil is under water but leaves are above water. Do not allow water to flow from one field to another. This controls a wide range of weeds for 30-35 days after application. However, if Cyperus and broad leaved weeds are present, spray 2,4, D @ 2.5 kg.! hectare about three weeks after transplanting or 4 weeks after sowing.
- Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa