All occasions celebrated by human beings are marked with flowers which occupy a prominent place in our life style. Floriculture is given the status of sunrise industry and it has immense potential for income generation, creation of employment opportunities and to earn precious foreign ,exchange earnings. The commercial production of cut flowers is in full swing in the country and accorded the top priority in states like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.In Goa, floriculture is yet to gear up and commercial production just comprises less than a percent as compared to other horticultural crops.
Hi-tech floriculture is of recent origin in the state. Marigold, jasmine, crossandra, gladiolus, gerbera, tuberose, heliconia, ginger lily, orchids and anthurium are the crops grown on a small scale in Goa. Area under flower crops is hardly 30ha with a production of 45 tonnes in loose flowers and 16 lakh cut flowers per annum. There are 25 cost effective shadenet houses and poly houses spread in an area of27,200sq.m. The warm and humid weather conditions of the state are ideal for commercial cultivation of marigold, jasmine, crossandra, tuberose, orchids, anthurium, heliconia, ginger lily and many greens/cut foliage.
In fact, floriculture is a remunerative alternative to the existing farming practices in the state. Though there were some efforts made earlier, it was the year 2001 that marked the beginning of commercial production of cut flowers such as orchids, anthurium and gladiolus in the state. The most recently introduced flowers are gerbera, heliconia and ginger lily. Now the people from all walks of life are coming forward with enthusiasm to take up floriculture as a commercial venture.
Gladiolus, popularly called sword lily, takes its name from the Latin word Gladius because of sword shaped leaves. It is one of the major cut flowers in national and international markets and it is grown commercially to an extent of 1,500 ha in India. It is mainly cultivated in Karnataka, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Delhi,Sikkim and Himachal Pradesh. It’s elegant spikes with wide range of colours in various forms and size has won for it a place of pride in ornamental gardens and monetary value as a cut flower. It is widely used in flower arrangement, bouquets, bunches, baskets and indoor decorations.
Floriculture is still in infant stage in Goa, though it is one of the leading flower markets in India. At present, annual flower business turn over in the state is about Rs.18 crores. Gladiolus occupies the third position in flower trade and about 17 lakh spikes are consumed annually in the state. It has been found as a successful and viable crop under agro-climatic conditions of the state.
Of late, gladiolus production has gained popularity among farmers due to ease of cultivation and good profit. There is a tremendous scope for its production round the year as there is a huge demand for the flower. At present, growers are facing many problems and in need of location specific technical information about the crop. So, there is an urgent need for standardization of location specific agro techniques for successful cultivation of gladiolus which is a newly introduced flower crop in Goa. Therefore, a series of experiments and observation trials were conducted during 1999 and 2006 to generate information on various aspects of gladiolus cultivation.
Gladiolus is native of South Africa and was introduced into India during 19th century. There are 226 species in the genus Gladiolus and most of them are found in South and Tropical Africa..read more
Gladiolus is a sun loving plant, so it prefers open field conditions for its commercial cultivation. Under shade, plants become lanky and produce poor quality spikes..read more
There is a wide range of variation in gladiolus. Species and varieties with different growth habits producing various types of flowers of different shape, size and colour are available.read more
Gladiolus requires good soil preparation for its better growth and yield. Land should be ploughed thoroughly at least a fortnight prior to planting of corms..read more
Irrigation/ Weeding/ Mulching/ Nutrition of Gladiolus
Gladiolus is a water loving plant and needs sufficient moisture in the soil till the harvesting of spikes. Flower bud initiation and spike elongation are the most critical stages in gladiolus. read more
Spikes of gladiolus are harvested when the first 5-6 flower buds show the colour and the first flower bud is ready to open the next day.read more
There was a minor incidence of the following insects and diseases in gladiolus fields in Goa over a period of five years… read more
- Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa