Pigeon Pea / Arhar Dal / Tur Dal / Red Gram cultivation in Assam


The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is a perennial legume from the family Leguminaceae (Fabaceae). It is also known as Pigeonpea or Arhar or Tur. Since its domestication in India at least 3,500 years ago, its seeds have become a common food grain in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It is consumed on a large scale mainly in South Asia and is a major source of protein for the population of that subcontinent.

Scientific NameCajunus cajan.


Pigeon pea varieties

T-21 is recommended for all zones. It is a semi-spreading, medium tall (170-185 cm in height) variety. Crop duration is 170-200 days.


Time of Sowing

June – July.


Soil Type

Well-drained sandy loams to loamy soil are most suitable.


Land Preparation for Pigeon pea cultivation

The land is to be ploughed 3-5 times followed by harrowing and removing weeds.


Seed Rate

12-15 kg/ha or 1.8-2.0 kg/bigha.



75 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants.


Manures and Fertilizers for Red gram/Pigeon pea

Compost or FYM @ 4.5 t/ha or 6 q/bigha is to be applied.

Nutrient Requirement Form(kg/ha) Fertilizer requirement 

kg/ha         kg/bigha

A. Without rhizobium inoculation :
N 15 Urea 32 4
P2O5 40 SSP 220 35
B. With rhizobium inoculation:
N 10 Urea 22 3
P2O5 40 SSP 250 35


One weeding is to be done at 20-25 days after sowing.


Plant Protection


1. Wilt: The pathogen inhabits in the soil and perpetuates. Rogueing and burning of diseased plants partly help in controlling the disease.


Insect Pests

Against, pod borer, apion borer, aphids, jassids, flea beetle and leafroller; spray malathion 50 EC @ 1.0-1.51it or fenitrothion @ 1.0-1.51it mixed in 500-700 litres of water/ha.

To control pod and apion borers, any one of the above insecticides should be sprayed in 3 occasions from the time of flower initiation at an interval of 15 days. For control of flea beetle, leaf roller, pod bugs and jassids, insecticides should be applied if felt necessary.


Average Yield

12-15 q/ha.


Intercropping of Arhar with Greengram, Blackgram and Sesamum

Intercropping of arhar with green gram/black gram and sesame for the hill slop (20-25%) either in a single/double row or broadcasting in between rows of arhar is recommended. The crops are to be sown in lines across the slope. A basal dose of 15 kg N and 40 kg P2O5/ha are to be applied. To get optimum yield from both main and intercrop, the crops should be sown within last week of July to the first week of August.



  • Assam Agriculture University.
  • IndiaAgroNet.com.
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