Pea (Hindi: Matar), is cultivated for its tender and immature pods for use as a vegetable and mature dry pods for use as a pulse. In both cases, seeds are separated and used as vegetable or pulse. Peas are highly nutritive and contain a high content of digestible protein (7.2 g / 100g), Carbohydrate (15.8 g), Vitamin-C (9 mg), phosphorus (139 mg) and minerals. Tender seeds are also used in soups. Canned, frozen and dehydrated peas are very common for use during the off-season. Like any legume crop, a pea is an integral component of sustainable agriculture due to its soil enriching and conditioning properties.
Scientific name- Pisum sativum L.
Varieties of Pea
Pea cultivars were grown in different parts of the world exhibit wide variation in the height of stem, branching, pod size, seeds per pod, shelling percentage, smoothness of seeds (smooth/wrinkled), etc.
Basal on maturity period
- Early types – green pods will be ready for harvest by 65 days after sowing.
- Mid-season types – pods will be ready for harvest by 85-90 days after sowing.
- Late main season types – pods will be ready for harvest by 110 days after sowing
Based on height of plant
- Bush or dwarf types
- Medium tall
Usually, dwarf types are early, and mid-season types are medium tall. Late types are tall and require support.
A brief description of improved varieties of Pea is given below:
|IIHR, Bangalore.||Arka Ajit||Resistant to powdery mildew||and rust.||Yield|
|10t/ha in 90 days.|
|UN 53-6||A snap pea where the whole pod is edible. Yield|
|8-9 t/ha in 90 days.|
|IARI, New Delhi.||Arkel*||Early season variety introduced from England|
|Dwarf plants bearing double pods at lower nodes|
|and single at upper nodes. Pods 8.8 cm long and|
|sickle shaped. Suitable for fresh market and|
|dehydration. Susceptible to collar rot at high|
|temperature. Yield 7.5 t/ha in 50-55 days.|
|Bonneville*||Midseason variety introduced from the USA.|
|Medium tall plants bearing double pods. Pods|
|more than 9 cm long. Yield 8.5 t/ha. Seeds green|
|Sylvia||Introduced edible podded variety suitable for|
|kitchen garden. Pods curved, yellowish green|
|IARI,||Regional||Lincoln*||Early season variety introduced from France.|
|Station, Katrain||Medium tall plants bearing double pods of 8-9 cm|
|length and sickle shaped.||Mature||seeds|
|wrinkled. First picking 85-90 days after sowing|
|(DAS). Yield 68-10 t/ha.|
|IIVAR, Varanasi.||VRP 2*||Plants 50 cm tall. Pods straight and medium|
|sized. First harvest 55-58 DAS. Yield 10 t/ha.|
|Kashi||Early maturing variety developed through|
|Nandini*||pedigree selection. Plants erect and dwarf. Pods|
|(VRP 3)||long. Tolerant to leaf miner and pod borer. Yield|
|6.5 t/ha with 80 % shelling percentage.|
|Kashi||Mid season||variety.||Plants||80 cm tall||with|
|Shakthi*||attractive pods. Yield 7.5 t/ha.|
|Tamil||Nadu||Ooty 1||A dwarf variety with a yield of 11.9 t/ha in 90|
|Agricultural||days. Resistant to white fly.|
|NDAU&T,||NDVP 8*||Mid season variety with 10 t/ha.|
|NDVP 10*||Mid season variety with 10 t/ha.|
|Punjab||Punjab 88*||Early season variety developed through selection|
|Agricultural||from cross between Pusa 2 x Morrasis 55.||Pods|
|University,||dark green, long (8-10 cm) and slightly curved.|
|Ludhiana||Days to first harvest – 100.||Yield 15 t/ha with|
|47% shelling percentage.|
|Matar||Early season||dwarf variety.||Tolerant to||high|
|Ageta 6*||temperature.||Yield 6 t/ha with 44.67% shelling|
|percentage. Seeds smooth and green.|
|CSAUA&T,||Azad||P.2*||Resistant to powdery.||Plants tall (130-150 cm).|
|Kanpur.||(PRS4)||Straight and smooth pods. Yield 12 t/ha in 90-95|
|Azad||P-3*||Early maturing variety.||Pods||straight, medium|
|(PRS 4)||size. Yield 8 t/ha.|
|JNKV, Jabalpur.||Jawahar||Mid season dwarf variety with big, attractive|
|Matar 1* (JM||green, 8-9 cm long pods containing 8-10 sweet|
|1, GL 141)||green ovules.|
|Jawahar||Pods dark green, big, curved with 8-10 sweet|
|Matar 2||ovules wrinkle seeded, susceptible to powdery|
|Jawahar||Early season variety developed through selection|
|Matar-3||from cross between T 19 x Early Badger.||First|
|(Early||picking in 50 DAS, Pods 7 cm long, light green|
|December*)||and round oval / ovules.|
|Jawahar||Mid season variety derived from T 19 x Little|
|Matar-4*||Marvel.||Plants 50-60 cm tall.||Pods 7 cm long,|
|(JM||4, GL||green. Mature seeds green and wrinkled.|
|Jawahar||Resistant to powdery mildew and Fusarium wilt.|
|Matar 15||Plants dwarf. Yild 13 t/ha.|
|Jawahar||Powdery mildew resistant variety with big|
|Matar 54||incurved pods are enclosing 8-9 big wrinkled seeds.|
|Yield 7 t/ha.|
|Jawahar||Midseason powdery mildew resistant variety|
|Peas 83*||developed through double cross (Arkel x JP 829)|
|x (46 C x JP 501). Plants dwarf. Pods big and|
|curved with 8 green and sweet ovules. Yield 12-|
|Harbhajan||Early variety is resembling to field pea. Susceptible|
|to powdery mildew. Av. Yield 3 t/ha.|
|GBPUA&T||PM 2*||Early variety developed through pedigree|
|Pantnagar||selection from cross between.||Early Badger x|
|Pant Uphar. Pods smaller than Arkel. Yield 10|
|Pant||Uphar*||Medium maturity, ready for harvest by 70-80|
|(IP3)||DAS.||Flowers white, Pods||round.||Seeds|
|wrinkled, Susceptible to powdery mildew.|
|Resistant to stem fly. Yield 10 t/ha.|
|Pant||Sabji||Early season variety with long curved pods with|
|Matar 3||8-9 ovules. Picking starts 60-75 DAS.||Yield 9|
|HAU, Hisar.||Hisar||Harit*||Developed through selection from cross between|
|(PH 1)||Bonneville x P 23. Pods large, sickle-shaped and|
|single or double. Yield 9 t/ha.|
|VPKAS, Almora||VL Matar 3*||Plants determinate. White flowers, straight and|
|double podded. Length – 6.8 cm. First picking is|
|100 DAS. Yield 10 t/ha.|
|VL||Agethi||Early season dwarf variety. First picking in 120-|
|Matar 7* (VL||125 DAS. Pods 8 cm long, light green, slightly|
|7)||curved. Seeds wrinkled. Yield 23-25 t/ha. with|
|VL 8*||Mid season variety with 10 t/ha.|
|Vivek*||(VL||Medium mature variety with straight, 6-7 cm long|
|Matar 6)||pods. Seeds semi-wrinkled. Moderately tolerant|
|to cold and moisture stress. Yield 11 t/ha.|
|TNAU,||Ooty-1||Dwarf variety having a yield potential of 11.9 t/ha|
|Coimbatore||in 90 days. Resistant to white fly.|
Climate for pea cultivation
Pea is typically a cool season crop and thrives well in cool weather. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 22oC. Even though seeds germinate at 5oC, a speed of germination is less. At higher temperature, the decay of seedlings is more. The Early stage of a crop is tolerant to frost. However, flowering and fruit development are adversely affected by frost. The optimum monthly mean temperature for growth of plants is 10-18.3oC. As temperature increases, the maturity is hastened, and yield is reduced. The quality of pods produced is also low at high temperature due to a conversion of sugars to hemicellulose and starch.
Soil for growing peas
Crop prefers well-drained, loose and friable loamy soil for early crop and clayey soil for high yield. Ideal pH is 6.0-7.5, and it grows under the alkaline soil. If the soil is acidic, liming is recommended.
In plains of North India, a pea is sown from beginning of October to middle of November. Yield is drastically reduced when the crop is sown after 4th December (Chaubey, 1977). Crop sown in September will be susceptible to wilt disease. In hills, the pea is sown in March for the summer crop and in May for the autumn crop.
Sowing and seed rate for Peas
The soil is prepared to a fine tilth by disc ploughing followed by one or two harrowing. Seeds are sown in flat or raised beds by broadcasting or by dibbling at 2.5-5.0 cm depth. Early varieties are sown at a closer spacing of 30 x 5-10 cm, and the seed rates are 100-120 kg/ha. Midseason and late varieties are sown at a wider spacing of 45 x 10 cm. Late varieties are sown on either edge of raised beds which are 120-150 cm wide with furrows in between. Seed rate for late varieties is 80-90 kg/ha. Overnight soaking of seeds in water or GA 3 (10 ppm) improves germination.
Manure and fertilizers for Peas
A crop yielding 4-5 tonnes of green peas removes 55 kg N, 20 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O. High doses of N have an adverse effect on nodule formation and N fixation. N at 25 kg/ha is sufficient to stimulate early growth of pea. Phosphatic fertilizer increases yield and quality by increasing N fixation and nodule formation. Potassium fertilizers also increase N fixation ability of plants and yield.
In addition to 10 tonnes of farmyard manure, a fertilizer dose of 25 kg N, 70 kg P2O5 and 50 kg K2O are recommended for one hectare, and the entire dose is drilled at the time of sowing seeds. If fertilizers are coming in contact with seeds, there will be a severe injury to seeds. Fertilizer should be applied in bands at 7-8 cm away and 2.5 cm deeper from seeds. Application of sodium molybdate @ 40 kg/ha either as per or post-emergence spray is reported to increase yield and collar rot resistance in peas.
Application of fertilizers in Tamilnadu
Apply FYM at 20 t/ha and 60 kg N, 80 kg P and 70 kg K/ha as basal and 60 kg N/ha 30 days after sowing.
Irrigation of Peas
Pea, like any legume vegetable, is sensitive to drought and excessive irrigation. Excessive irrigation immediately after sowing results in poor germination due to hard crust formation. Excessive irrigation in earlier stags increases vegetative growth. Light irrigations t 10-15 days intervals are given for pea. Flowering, Fruit set and grain filling periods are critical stages, and care should be taken to irrigate crop at these stages. Four irrigations at pre-bloom, pod set, and fruit picking stages are recommended for variety Bonneville under Bangalore conditions.
Care should be taken to remove weeds in early stages of the crop. Lasso (alachlor) @ 0.75 kg a.i. or tribunal @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha or pendemethalin 0.5 kg a.i. / ha as pre-emergence spray along with one hand weeding at 25-45 days after sowing is very effective for weed control.
When plants are 15 cm high, tall varieties should be stacked with wooden sticks or twigs for trailing. A single row of stakes fixed in the middle of raised bed will support both rows of plants in each bed.
Earthing up and hoeing is also important operations in peas and helps in root development and growth of plants. This is usually done after weeding and fertilizer application.
Harvesting of Peas
Since tender peas with high sugar content fetch a premium price in the market, care should be taken to harvest pods at correct maturity. During maturity, sugar content decreases and polysaccharides and insoluble nitrogen compounds like protein increases. Calcium migrates to seed coat and becomes tougher during ripening. The toughness of seeds is determined using Tenderometer, especially for processing purposes. Peas with low tendrometer reading are offered a high price.
Many workers calculated heat units to ascertain maturity and harvesting of peas. Some degree hours above 4.4oC required to bring variety to maturity is calculated, and it varies from variety to variety.
Peas for fresh market are harvested when they are well filled and when the color changes from dark green to light green. Usually, 3-4 harvests at 10 days intervals are possible. Green pod yield varies with duration of variety and is 2.5-4.0 t/ha for early varieties, 6.0-7.5 t/ha for mid season varieties and 8.0-10.0 t/ha for late varieties. Shelling percentage ranges from 35-50. Seed yield varies from 2.0 to 2.5 t/ha. Peas after harvesting are packed in gunny bags or crates. Fresh unshelled peas can be stored for two weeks at 10oC and 90-95% RH.
Pests and Diseases of Peas
Stem fly, pea aphid, leafminer and pod borer are major pests, and wilt and root rot, powdery mildew, rust, Ascochyta blight and pod rot are major diseases of a Pea.
“ORIGIN, AREA, PRODUCTION, VARIETIES, PACKAGE OF PRACTICES …”Development of e-Courses for B.Sc(Agriculture). N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May. 2017 <http://eagri.tnau.ac.in/eagri50/HORT281/pdf/lec17.pdf>.
ORIGIN, AREA, PRODUCTION, VARIETIES, PACKAGE OF PRACTICES …(n.d.). Retrieved from http://eagri.tnau.ac.in/eagri50/HORT281/pdf/lec17.pdf
- Tamilnadu Agriculture University.