10 open access technologies are given below:-
Technology 1: Production of Elite Germplasm of Different Goat Breeds
Improvement in milk yield and body weight at various stages of growth through the use of selected bucks of Jamunapari and Barbari breed from generation to generation has been possible. An index combining 9-month body weight of the individual and 90-day milk yield of their dam has been developed for selecting bucks to produce superior progeny from generation to generation. The technology of gene marker assisted selection has been quite effective for institutional goat flocks as well as to improve farmer’s flocks of indigenous breeds in the native home tract.
A similar approach is in operation to improve, Black Bengal, Ganjam, Sirohi, Marwari, Sangamneri, Surti, Malabari and Jakhrana in their breeding tract in West Bengal, Orissa, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Kerala states under the All India Coordinated Research Project on Goat Improvement. A large number of superior and improved breeding bucks and does of different breeds have been supplied to the farmers through various agencies for breed improvement of indigenous goat flocks, and the results have been encouraging.
Technology 2: Semen Freezing and Artificial Insemination in Goats
Reproductive technologies have a significant role for genetic improvement of various production traits. In goats, the technique for cry preservation of semen and its use through A.I. (Fresh and Frozen) has been developed which may be utilised for large-scale adoption for breeding of goats.
Considering the shortage of breeding males under farmer’s flock this technology will bring genetic improvement in goats. Post-thaw motility varied from 50 to 70 per cent in different breeds with a conception rate of 35-50% with two inseminations (deep cervical) at an interval of 10-12 hours. A minimum of 100-120 million spermatozoa per inseminating dose for acceptable fertility is required. The dilution rate of 1:5 to 1:6 should be preferred.
Periodic preputial washing with a sterile normal saline solution before semen collection is advisable to reduce bacterial contaminants and increase the freeze ability.
Technology3: Development of Reproductive Health Calendar for Goats
For the benefits of progressive goat farmers and entrepreneurs, a reproductive health calendar for breeding, pregnancy, parturition and rebreeding has been developed.
Technology 4: Optimum Floor Space and Ventilation for Goats
Environmental factors, animal shed structures, appliances, and management practices influence the performance of goats especially under intensive and semi-intensive systems of management. Due to the stocking of a large number of goats at one place impact of housing becomes more pronounced on the production parameters, morbidity, and mortality. In the intensive system of management, the economic viability of the farms is largely dependent on the expenditure incurred on feed and fodder. Shelter requirements of goats for different agro-climatic zones in the country vary widely.
The Institute has worked out the optimum floor space requirements for different categories of goats. The Ventilation space has also been worked out.
Technology 5: Male Kid Production System
The goat meat available in Indian market either comes from old and culled adults or from male kids slaughtered between 6 to 12 months of age. The quantity and quality of this meat are poor due to poor market weights, lower dressing percentage, and narrow bone. Economics of meat kid production under different production systems has been worked out. Based upon these studies, Institute has developed a Package of Practices to be adopted by the progressive farmers and by the entrepreneurs for intensive and semi-intensive of goat meat production in the country.
Technology 6: Milk Replacer for Pre-weaning Kids
Most of the prolific goat breeds in India are poor milk yielder. Milk replacer/substitute supplies essential nutrients to multiple birth kids, and the kids are having no or minimum accessibility of mother’ milk. Milk replacer with 24%CP can maintain the growth performance of kids (2 or 3 weeks-13 weeks) which is cheaper than mother’s milk.
Technology 7: Starter Ration for Early Growing Kids
Kids at an early stage of growth are susceptible to neonatal diseases if they are undernourished or maintained under poor nutrition. Hence, a suitable ration schedule has been developed to maintain and improve growth performances of kids at an early stage of growth under the intensive system of production. Starter ration containing 18-20 percent CP and 65 percent TDN is effective for early growing kids.
Technology 8: Strategic Supplementary Feeding Schedule for Goats
Based on the deficiency pattern of nutrients (protein, energy, and minerals) strategic concentrate mixture has been developed for increasing the growth performance of kids under field conditions in the semi-arid zone of western UP and Rajasthan. The strategic area specific mineral mixture (Ca, P, Mg, Na, Cl, Zn, Co) is effective to increase the growth performance of kids (pre and post weaning) along with added energy and protein.
Technology 9: Cultivation of Fodder Legumes Under Agroforestry System in Rainfed Condition
To utilise inter-row space and improve soil fertility under Morus Alba(Mulberry)and Azadirachta indica (Neem) plantation stand fodder legumes, i.e., Cowpea, Guar, Sun hemp, Daincha can be cultivated as sole and mixture of these. This system will improve total quality fodder yield per hectare area for goat rearing purposes.
Technology 10: Preparation of Goat Milk Paneer
Institute has developed the technique of Paneer making using goat milk which is soft, palatable and thus liked by consumers. The shelf life of this product is 3 – 4 days at refrigeration temperature.
“Superior Germ plasm of different goat breeds | Indian …”Indian Council of Research Agriculture. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May. 2017 <http://www.icar.org.in/en/node/4156>.
Superior Germ plasm of different goat breeds | Indian … (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.icar.org.in/en/node/4156
- ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats