Oats cultivation / Oats farming-TamilNadu


Scientific Name- Avena sativa

Origin- Oats is the Asiatic origin. Asia minor is believed to be an origin for oats.

Geographic distribution

  • Oats area and production in the World are about 27m ha and 40m tones, respectively.
  • Countries cultivating oats widely are Russian federation, USA, Canada, Poland, China, France and Australia.
  • In India, Punjab, Haryana, UP and limited areas in MP, Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal are the Oats growing states.

Economic importance

  • It is a good cattle feed, human food in the form of good quality grain, oatmeal, and cookies.
  • Three cultivated types are 7 haploids (14 chromosomes), 14 haploid (28 chromosomes) and 21 haploids (42 chromosomes).
  • Common oats (Avena sativa) spread in 80% total  area.
  • Avena brevis is short oat grown in South Europe for green fodder.
  • Avena abyssinica is Abyssinian oat grown in North Africa.
  • Red oats is grown around Mediterranean region.

Soil and climatic requirement


  • Wide range of soil with good water holding capacity is more suited for oats cultivation.
  • High N content in soil is not a desirable condition may lead to lodging.


  • Grows best in cool and moist climate.
  • Also, best adapted to cotton belt.
  • Cool weather is important during grain filling for high yield.

Varieties of Oats

Kent, Algerian, Bunker 10, Coachmen, HFO 114, UPO 50.


Cultural Practices needed for growing Oats

Land preparation

Selected well-drained loamy soil with good irrigation prospect for growing of oats. Water logged areas should be avoided. The land should be ploughed thoroughly three to four times to make the soil well pulverized and should be leveled properly. Seeds should be sown when there is just sufficient moisture in the soil. If the soil is dry, a pre-sowing light irrigation should be given.

Seeds and sowing time

  • Fanning the light weight seeds is mandatory. Otherwise, even if those germinate, results in weak stem and poor yield.
  • About 25-30% seeds are normally rejected.
  • Seed rate recommended is 100 kg/ha.
  • Best time of sowing for oats is mid-October to mid-November.
  • 15th October is the optimum time for fodder production.
  • The method of sowing: Drill sowing is better than broadcasting.

Spacing: 20-23cm row spacing for fodder and 23-25cm for grain production is optimum.

Fertilizers requirements

  • 5 t/ha of FYM is to be applied before the last ploughing and to be incorporated before sowing.
  • 80:40:0 kg NPK/ha is the recommended dose of fertilizers.
  • 100% P is to be applied as basal.
  • 60kg N is to be applied as basal, 10kg at first irrigation and 10kg at second irrigation is good for higher yield.
  • 10 kg of N is to be applied after first cutting if sown for fodder cum grain.

Water management

  • It requires higher water than wheat.
  • 4-5 irrigations provide good yields. Generally, irrigation immediately after each cutting is mandatory.
  • Critical stage for irrigation of oats is tillering stage.

Weed management

One hand weeding is sufficient.


  • 120-150 days required to mature.
  • Common practice is 2 or 3 cuttings for fodder and then allowing for grain.


Cropping system 

  • Sorghum-oat-maize
  • Maize-oat-maize
  • Cowpea-oat + mustard-maize + cowpea
  • Sorghum + cowpea-oat + lucerne



  • 50-60t fodder and 200-400 kg grain/ha.
  • Maximum grain yield of 3 -3.5t /ha is possible.


Source-Tamil Nadu Agriculture University.

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