An Introduction into Fisheries Sector of Goa
In India, the contribution of marine fisheries to the Indian economy is very significant which is shown by the huge employment opportunities that it creates in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors, foreign exchange and meeting the food security. TheIndian fisheries industry contributes to about 1-1.4% of the total GDP. The value of the marine fish landings at the point of the first sale- 29, 372 crores and 46,710 crores at the point of last sales (CMFRI, 2014). Price of a product definitely depends on its demand. Both supply and demand together decide the marketability.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish and other aquatic animals such as gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods, crustaceans and echinoderms. Fish assumes greater significance to the people of Goa and it forms an integral part of Goan life and culture as it forms one of the most important items of the food of more than 90% percent of the population. Goa is the state with a coast line of 104 km (1.28% of Indian coast line of 8117 km) with numerous bays and headlands.
The continental shelf area of Goa extends to about 10,000 km2 of about 100 fathoms depths. The fisheries sector contributes to about 2.5% of the total GDP of the state (third position after West Bengal and A.P.) and 17.1% of the agricultural GDP of the State.Thus fishing industry of Goa plays a vital role in socio-economic development of Goa by contributing substantially towards Net State Domestic Product through Export and Domestic trade annually. In India fish eating population is about 56% of total population (Planning Commission, Govt. of India); Percapita fish consumption is about 8.49 kg. Goa contributes to about 1.85% of the total marine fish landings of our country (CMFRI, 2013)
Figure 1. Contribution of fisheries sector to total as well as agricultural GDP
The contribution of the fisheries sector to the total GDP of Goa is found to be 2.46% and there is a decline in the contribution of the fisheries sector to the GDP. On the other hand, the fisheries sector has improved its contribution to the agricultural GDP in the last decade from 16.85% in 1999-2000 to 33.91% in 2007-08. Thus the fisheries sector plays a significant role in the agricultural sector of the state.
Marine fishery sector provides livelihood to a large number of people in Goa. Altogether more than 5% of the total working population is engaged in fishing and allied activities. Moreover, Fisheries industry forms the second largest industry both in terms of employment and income. Besides the actual process of fishing, a number of ancillary and subsidiary activities like marketing, processing and small scale vending will also create a livelihood for a number of people.
The fishing in Goan waters occurs mainly from September to March which is the post monsoon and pre summer periods. The monsoon season extends from June to August is not favourable for fishing activities because of the rough weather conditions prevailing in the sea. The fish is in great demand in the whole state especially the marine fish, which forms 97% of the total fish production in Goa. In lean seasons, the fish is imported from neighbouring states.
Goa holds a huge scope in the fisheries development, particularly through brackish water and marine production. Marine fishing is the major activity which is carried out for a period of about nine months in a year. The marine fishing season starts from the mid of August till the end of May. The monsoon trawl ban which is the temporal fishery regulation is from June to Middle of August in Goa. A fisherman prepares themselves for the fishing season during this closure period by mending their nets, maintenance of the fishing vessels, boats and preparing new nets. read more
The trends in the marine fish catch along Goa clearly show that the total production has followed
the trend of pelagic fish production. The trend in fish production of Goa can be divided into 3 clear phases namely 1)1985-1995 2) 1996-2001 3) 2002- 2012. The average catch and percentage contribution of different groups of resources during the three phases have shown in table 1-2..read more
The major marine fisheries resources of Goa includes Indian oil sardine, Indian mackerel, cat fish, Sharks, seer fish, shrimps, pomfrets, cephalopods (cuttle fish and squid), tuna, ribbon fish, reef cod, white sardine, silver bellies, flat fish, Silver bar, crabs, croakers and butter fish. However, the key resources which dominate the marine fishery of Goa are Indian oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps and Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta. …read more
The unregulated growth of fishing capacity and inappropriate management systems cannot be continued any further. The development of a system of “co-management” can be a solution which will be based on the co-operation between fishing community, interested stakeholders, research institutions, NGOs and Government departments. read more
- Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa