Mango cultivation practices(Andhra Pradesh)


Mango is considered as the king of fruits. Andhra Pradesh is the second largest mango growing state in the country with an area of about 4.31 lakh hectares and annual production of 43.5 lakh metric tons. In Andhra Pradesh, mango occupies 68 percent of the total area under fruits.  24 % of the total production of mango in India is from Andhra Pradesh. The mango is grown extensively in Krishna, Vijayanagaram, Vishakapatnam, West and East Godavari, Kadapa, Warangal, Nalgonda, Adilabad, Medak, and Rangareddy district.

Scientific name-Mangifera indica L.

Climate requirement for Mango cultivation-

Mango is well adapted to the tropical climate. High humidity and cloudy weather at the time of flowering are not favourable as they affect pollination and fruit set and encourage diseases. Rains during flowering are detrimental to the crop.

Mango tree soil requirement-

Alluvial and sandy loams are ideal for mango cultivation. It can be grown even on lighter soils like chalkas and dubbas when properly manured. Alkaline and saline soils should be avoided. The most desirable soils for mango should be of medium texture, deep (2 to 2.5 m) well drained with low water table (below 180 cms in all seasons) and have a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5. Mango cannot tolerate high soil salt content (not more than 0.05 %).

Varieties of Mango-

1.Banganpalli (Baneshan)

Banganpalli is the leading commercial variety of the state. The tree is medium in size and regular in bearing. The fruit is large, with is golden yellow colour. The flesh of the fruit is firm, fibreless. The fruit quality is very good with good keeping quality. It is tolerant to hoppers and winds.

2.Totapari (Bangalora, Collector, Chittoor mamidi)

Totapari is better suited to dry regions, more regular and prolific yielder. The tree is medium size. Fruit medium to large, skin thick, golden yellow colour, flesh firm, fibreless, fruit quality poor to medium. The keeping quality is good. The bearing in Totapari is later than Banganpalli. Tree brittle and more susceptible to hoppers and cyclone damage compared to Banganpalli.

3. Suvarnarekha (Sundari, Lal Sundari)

This variety is popular in Srikakulam and Visakhapatnam districts. Fruit is medium in size, skin medium thick, light cadmium with a blush of red, flesh soft, fibreless.  Fruit quality medium to good, bearing heavy and regular.  Suvarnarekha is moderately tolerant to hoppers and susceptible to powdery mildew. The keeping quality of the fruit is good. This variety is suitable for export.

4. Neelum

Neelum is a late variety, more popular in Rayalaseema region. Fruit is medium in size. Skin medium thick, yellow in colour. The flesh is fibreless and fruit quality is good, Neelum is a regular and heavy bearer.  However, the fruit does not attain good size in Telangana region.

5. Dashehari

Dashehari is a commercial variety of North India and found suitable for growing in North Telangana Zone. The tree is medium in size. Fruit is small to medium, skin medium thick and yellow in colour. The flesh is firm, fibreless with good fruit quality. However, Dashehari is irregular in bearer, susceptible to hoppers and powdery mildew.

6. Peddarasam

Peddarasam is popular in Godavari and Krishna districts. The tree is medium in height, with large fruit. The fruit turns greenish yellow when ripe. The fruit juice is abundant, fibrous and sub-acidic. The bearing is regular and early.


Chinnarasam is popular in Nuzividu area of Krishna district. The tree is medium in size. The fruit is medium in size with abundant juice, characteristic strong flavour with fairly good keeping quality. The fruit quality is very good. The bearing is regular and heavy.

8. Navaneetham

The tree is medium to large size. The fruit is medium with abundant juice and short and soft fibre. The fruit quality is good.  The bearing is regular and heavy, midseason, susceptible to powdery mildew and moderately tolerant to hoppers. Fruit keeping quality poor.

9. Mahmooda Vikarabad

A dwarf variety suited for high-density planting. The tree is small in size. The fruit is medium, skin thin, yellowish green, flesh moderately firm, fibreless. The fruit quality very good to best. The bearing is regular, heavy, midseason to late, susceptible to hoppers, tolerates wind. The fruit keeping quality is good.

10. Chirutapudi Goa (Royal Special)

Royal special gives second crop (September-October) apart from the main season. The tree is medium in size. The fruit is medium, juice abundant with good fruit quality. The bearing is regular, mid-season to late, moderately tolerant to hoppers, less susceptible to winds.

 11. Jalal

It is a pickling variety, the regular bearer, fruit size is medium to large. It is a late variety.

12. A.U.Rumani

A hybrid between Rumani and Mulgoa. Fruit medium to large flesh melting, fibreless juice, fruit quality and bearing better than parents, stands transportation well. This hybrid was released from Horticultural Research Station, Anantharajupet.

13. Neeleshan

This hybrid was released from H.R.S., Anantharajupet. It is a hybrid between Neelum and Baneshan. The fruits are medium in size with firm fibreless flesh. The fruit matures 15 days later than Baneshan and catches the late market.

14. Neeluddin

It is a hybrid between Neelum and Himayuddin. The fruits are medium sized weighing on an average 200 g each and intermediate between the parents in shape. The skin is smooth, flesh is firm, melting and fibreless with characteristic flavour. It is abundantly juicy, very sweet in taste and rich in chemical constituents. Each tree bears 500 to 700 fruits regularly and comes to harvest in the last week of May.


This hybrid is developed by crossing Neelum with Yerramulgoa. The fruits are akin to Neelum but bigger in size and smooth-skinned. The flesh is firm, melting, fibreless, moderately juicy and very sweet in taste with a delightful flavour. The fruit weighs 270 g and is rich in nutrients. It has a regular bearing habit and produces 1000 fruits just like Neelum and comes to harvest in the month of May.

16. Swarna Jehangir

It is a hybrid between Chinna Suvarnarekha and Jehangir and inherits the attractive colour of the former parent and the size and quality of the latter. The fruit resembles Jehangir in shape and skin characters but slightly less in size weighing 230 g. The flesh is moderately firm, fibreless, abundantly juicy and very sweet with a pleasant flavour. It excels both the parents in yield and bears 600 fruits. The fruits are harvested in the month of June and stand transport very well.

17. Manjeera

It is a hybrid of Rumani X Neelum released from Sangareddy. Fruits very attractive and large looks like Rumani. It is a dwarf variety, suitable for high-density planting. About 500 plants can be accommodated per hectare adopting a spacing of 4.5 m either way. Tolerant to powdery mildew and hoppers.

 18. Amrapali

It is a cross between Dashehari and Neelum. Amrapali is precocious, distinctly dwarf, highly regular and prolific in bearing and has good fruit quality. Since Amrapali is a short-statured variety, the planting distance can be reduced considerably.


It is a cross between Neelum and Alphonso. It has good qualities of Alphanso in fruit characters with semi dwarf growing habit. The formation of spongy tissue is absent.

20. Mallika

It is a cross between Neelum and Dahsehari. The tree is medium in size and  regular bearer. The fruits are large, elongated, good quality and bears in cluster.

21. Arka Aruna

It is a cross between Banganpalli and Alphonso released from IIHR, Bangalore. It is regular bearer. The fruit are large (500-700 g) and attractive, fibreless with sweet flesh.

22.Arka Puneet

It is a cross between Alphonso and Banganpalli released from IIHR, Bangalore. It is regular bearer with medium-size fruit (200-300 g) with very attractive red colour, fibreless flesh.

23. Arka Anmol

It is a cross between Alphonso and Janardhan Pasand released from IIHR, Bangalore.  The tree is semi-dwarf, regular bearer with orange colour flesh.  The fruit has long shelf life and hence suitable for export.

24. Sindhu

It is a backcross between Ratna and Alphonso.  It has paper-thin seed which weighs about 6.8 g.

Planting Material-

Mango is commercially propagated by Veneer grafting. One or two-year-old veneer grafts should be collected from an authentic source. The grafts should have a minimum of 4 whorls of leaves with strong graft union.

Planting and spacing for Mango cultivation-

The plantation of mango should be taken up at the beginning of the monsoon (June- July). In areas with heavy rainfall planting should be done at the end of rainy season. The pit of size 1m x 1m x 1m should be dug and filled with topsoil, well mixed with 25 kg farmyard manure and 2 kg superphosphate and 100 gm of Folidol powder to avoid termite damage. Planting distances can be around 7 to 10 meters depending on soil depth and vigour of the variety planted. Even 12 meters spacing may be necessary for very deep and fertile soils.  The graft should be planted with a ball of earth and press the soil all around the base. The graft joint should be above ground level. Stake the plant to prevent wind damage. Remove root-stock sprouts below the graft joint.

Manures and fertilizers for Mango plantation-

To improve the texture of soils, add adequate tank silt and FYM. Sowing of the green manure crop (20 kg sun hemp/10 kg diancha/acre) with the onset of monsoon Fertilizer and incorporating 45 days after sowing. The fertilizers schedule for mango for different ages is as follows

Age of the tree
             grams / tree
First year 100 100 100
Second Year 200 200 200
Third Year 300 300 300
Forth Year 400 400 400
Fifth Year 500 500 500
Sixth Year 600 600 600
Seventh Year 700 700 700
Eight Year 800 800 800
Ninth Year 900 900 900
Tenth Year 1000 1000 1000


  • Fertilizers should be applied through placement in circular trenches around the trunk. For the 10 years, age and above trees the fertilizer should be applied at 1.5 m away from the trunk
  • Manures and fertilizers should be generally done in the beginning of monsoon. Irrigation should be given after the application of fertilizers. Wherever irrigation is available it is advantageous to apply half of the recommended dose of fertilizers after fruit set.
  • For the correction of micronutrient deficiency, spraying of ZnSO4 5 g, Boran 2 g and 10 g urea per litre of water is recommended at the onset of monsoon.
  • Spraying of KNO3 @ 10 g/l during November helps in opening of the flower bud and uniform flowering.


To remove criss-cross branches pruning may be done so that center of the tree is opened out and inner branches are exposed to sunlight. Pruning of the dried twigs and branches should be done with a pruning saw during June-July. Pruning in mango encourages production of new shoots.


Intercrops like vegetables, low growing field crops and fruits like Phalsa or Papaya can be profitably grown in alleys in young orchards. Red gram is not advisable as it is an alternative host to a mealybug. In old orchards shade tolerating crops like ginger, turmeric etc. can be taken.

Two ploughing in the interspaces, once at the beginning and another at the end of the monsoon keep the orchard weed free and facilitate rain water percolation.


Mango irrigation management-

Mango responds well to irrigation, particularly at fruit set and developmental phases. The young plants at bearing stage should be irrigated frequently.

  • In bearing trees, for obtaining good flowering, irrigation must be stopped at least 2 months before flowering period. Stopping of irrigation creates stress and encourages flower bud formation.
  • Irrigation should be given fruit set and thereafter at regular intervals during fruit development period, beginning from fruit set stage to full development stage.
  • For better quality irrigation should be stopped 20-30 days before maturity/harvesting the crop.
  • As far as possible irrigation should be given with drip system. Drip irrigation not only conserves water but also increases water use efficiency.
  • For conservation of rainwater, rows (in a rectangular system of planting) should be along the contour in sloppy locations.

Fruit Drop in Mango-

Fruit drop in mango occurs when the fruits are at peak stage of development.  Moisture deficiency, nutrient deficiency, and hormonal imbalance are the causes for the mango fruit drop. Fruit drop can be controlled by spraying 2,4 – D at 10 ppm or Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 20 ppm twice at an interval of 15 days during the early stage (peanut stage) of fruit development.

Irregular Bearing-

Irregular bearing in mango is due to an imbalance in nutrient status of the plant. Balanced manuring and fertilizer application and irrigation will keep the tree healthy and vigorous and prevent the irregular bearing. Pruning of weak, dead criss-cross shoots to open the canopy of the tree is suggested to regulate the bearing in old trees.

Top Working-

Top working is done to replace the inferior seedling mango by know variety.  The trees are beheaded up to 1.5 m height in August to September months i.e., after receding of heavy rain.  Allow 4-5 vigorous shoots to grow. Grafting on the shoots is done by veneer grafting on the shoots of pencil thickness.  Once the graft is successful, remove the shoots arising from the seedling tree.  Prune the new shoots to get more branches. The young shoots arising from grafts should be protected.

Harvesting and packing of Mangoes-

Early harvest of fully developed but not matured fruit starts in April to catch the early Northern markets. However, the fruits harvested without reaching maturity will not ripen properly. Normal harvest commences when few “Patukayalu” or “Shakh” fall from the tree. In case of pickle mangoes, time of harvest is relatively more flexible and any time between stone hardening and attainment of physiological maturity. Harvesting the fruits with a long poll having a net at the end (Gowka) or Dapoli harvester and lowering them gently on a gunny cushion minimizes the injuries. The minimum total soluble content for harvesting without sacrificing the quality is 9.0 in case of Banganpalli and 8.5 for Dashehari. For judging the maturity, fruit samples from various directions of the tree are taken and dropped in a bucket of water, the dipped fruits being indicative of correct maturity.

The fruits should be harvested with 7 cm stock and taken to the packhouse in plastic crates. Desapping of the fruits should be done by keeping the fruits in inverted position in the desapping nets for about 3-4 hours. Desapping of mango fruits prevent the sap injury on the fruits. After desapping the stock of the fruits are cut up to 1 cm.  The desapped fruits are washed thoroughly in the running water to remove the dirt and other extraneous material. For export, the mango fruits are graded as per the international guidelines of the importing country. The fruits are then packed in the Corrugated fiberboard baskets with stock end pointing upward to avoid injury to the fruits.

Post-Harvest Technology-

 The mango fruits can be stored for 8-10 days at room temperatures. However, under cold storage, the fruits can be stored up to 25 days at 12.5 O C and relative humidity of 80-90 %. Mango fruits cannot be stored below 12.5 O C as it causes the chilling injury.

Plant protection-

Pests of Mango and their control-

1. Mango hopper (Tenemanchu purugu) (Idioscopus clypealis , Idioscopus nitidulus  Amritodus atkinsoni  )  

Damage is caused by sucking sap from tender leaves and inflorescence. Ovipositional punctures also cause damage to tender leaves and inflorescence. Severely infested leaves become curled and inflorescence gets dried. Affected parts are covered with honeydew and sooty mould.


One sprays with carbaryl @ 3 gms/litre of water in November before panicle formation ensuring that tree trunks are also thoroughly drenched during the spray. During the full-length stage of panicle but before full bloom full bloom stage spraying with endosulfan @ 2 ml /litre of water or Dimethoate @ 2 ml /litre of water or imidacloprid @ 0.3 ml/ litre of water if the incidence of hoppers is high (more than 5-10 per panicle).After fruit set at pea size stage spraying with imidacloprid @ 0.3 ml/ litre of water or thiamethoxam @ 0.4 gm/ litre of water.

2. Mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae, Rastrococcus iceryodies)

Nymphs and adults suck the plant sap and reduce the vigor of the plant. Excessive and continuous draining of plant sap causes wilting and finally drying of infested tissue. They also secrete honeydew, a sticky substance, which encourages the development of a fungus Maliola mangiferae, resulting in sooty mould. R iceryodies is serious in South India. They are considered more important because if the control measures are not taken timely, the crop may be destroyed completely.


Plough orchard during summer to expose eggs to natural enemies and sun heat. Remove weeds like Clerodendron infortunaturm which are additional hosts.  After mud plastering 25 cm width 400 gauge alkathene sheet may be fastened to the tree trunk 30 cm above the ground level in the month of December- January or use the sticky band on the tree trunk to prevent migration of crawlers from soil to trees, one week before their emergence.

Raking the soil around the tree trunk and mixing of chlorpyriphos (1.5% dust) @250 gm per tree. The dust may also be sprinkled below the alkathene band on the tree.

Spray NSKE 4% or crude garlic oil 1% or Dimethoate 0.06 % or Acephate @ 2 gm/lt or Spirotetramat @ 0.3 ml/lit of water

3. Shoot Borer (Chlumetia transversa)

It causes serious damage to the new flush of mango. The affected shoots wilt droop and finally get dried. The infested trees become stunted in growth and the shoot into which this larva is bored dies and does not flower subsequently flowering is inhibited. Young trees up to the age of 8-10 years are more damaged.


Do not retain minor flushes during offseason. Apply relatively higher dosage of potash. Prune the infested the shoots and burn. Spray at bud – sprouting stage with Carbaryl 0.1 % followed by Dimethoate 0.04% or Quinalphos 0.5% at 15 days interval from commencement of new flesh.

4. Stem Borer (Kaandam tolughu purugu) Batocera rufomaculata

Damage is caused by the grub of this beetle as it feeds inside the stems, boring upwards and resulting in drying of branches and in severe cases attacked tree is killed.  Grubs with robust body feeding on inside tissues will be observed when there is a severe infestation.


The grubs can be extracted through hooked wires and then destroyed. The insect can be controlled by injecting in hole 0.02% dichlorvos ( DDVP)  or  0.05% endosulphan  @ 5 ml/holes or Celphos (aluminium phosphate)  one tablet (3g) per hole and then holes may be sealed with mud.

5. Stone or Nut Weevil (Sternochaetus mangiferae,  S.frigidus )

It is a common pest of mango in southern India. Sweeter varieties such as Alphonso, Bangalora, Neelum, etc. are more prone to attack by this pest. Female lays eggs on the epicarp of partially developed fruits or under the rind of ripening fruits. Newly emerged grubs bore through the pulp, feed on seed coat and later cause damage to cotyledons. Pupation takes place inside the seed. Discolouration of the pulp adjacent to the affected portion has been observed. Eggs are minute and white in colour. Adult weevils are 5 to 8 mm long, stout and dark brown in colour. Life-cycle is completed in 40 to 50 days during June-July. Adults hibernate until the next fruiting season. There is only one generation in a year. Extent of damage in susceptible cultivars like Neelum, Totapuri and Banganpalli varies from 60 to 65 %.


Collect fallen infested fruits and destroy. Spraying of the apply sticky band at the upper end of the trunk to prevent migration of weevils to branches for egg laying on fruits during February- March. Keep the tree basins clean to prevent hiding of diapausing weevils. Spray during of season (December – January) on tree trunk up to 2m height with fenthion 0.05%or Carbayl 0.1% or Deltamethrin 00025% six weeks after fruit set (especially at marble stage) and the second spray may be given after 15 days.

6. Thrips (Rati Mangu) (Thrips hawaiiensis, Scirtothrips dorsalis)

These appear during flowering and fruiting stages where their infestation can be recognized during January on flowers and developing fruits causing ‘Mangu’ though initial infestation results in flower drop. Their impact on young fruits is seen in terms of the rough surface as well as deshaping of fruits.


It can be controlled by spraying thiamethoxam @ 0.4 gm/litre of water or acephate 1.5 ml/lit of water or fipronil 2 ml / lt of water.

7. Leaf Webber (Orthaga euadrusalis)

The infestation is severe in shady conditions. Old orchards with lesser space between tree canopies have more infestation than open orchards. The larvae of Orthaga spp web the leaves and the terminal shoots into clusters which harbour several of them in the initial stage. The larvae are gregarious in the beginning and feed by scrapping the leaf surface. Late instar larvae feed on whole leaf lamina leaving the only midrib. Severs attack leads to drying of shoots/branches and reduction in fruit yield.


Supervise the orchard once in a month and search for webbed shoots. Prune the infested shoots and destroy them along with larvae during April – July. After pruning 2 to 3 sprays starting from last week of July at 15 days interval with Carbaryl 0.2% or quinalphos 0.05% have been found effective in controlling the pest.

8. Shoot gall psylla (Apsylla cistellata)

It is a very serious pest of mango in many parts of India, particularly in Terai region of U.P., North Bihar and West Bengal. This pest creates green conical galls in leaf axis. The activity of the pest starts from August. The galls dry out after emergence of psyllid adults in March. The galls are usually seen during September-October. Consequently, there is no fruit set. There is only one generation of the pest in a year.


The galls with nymphs inside should be collected and destroyed to prevent carryover of the pest. The pest can effectively be controlled by spraying monocrotophos (0.05%) or dimethoate (0.06%) or quinalphos (0.05 %) at 2-week intervals starting from the middle of August. The use of the same chemical for every spray should be avoided.

 9. Mango fruit borer (Deanolis albizonalis)

In coastal Andhra Pradesh, the incidence of mango fruit borer is slowly increasing and assuming as a serious problem on mango in some areas. The incidence is found right from pea size up to maturity stage. In initial stages, up to 6-10 larvae are found in one fruit. fruits in one bunch are prone to attack due to the migration of grown-up larvae to neighbouring fruits as in case of nut weevil Newly emerged larvae bore through the pulp, feed on seed coat and later cause damage to cotyledons.


  • After mango harvest removal of Dead wood from the tree
  • Removal of diapausing stage of Mango fruit borer from cracks and crevices in the bark and dried twigs
  • Removal and destruction of damaged and MFB infested fruits especially at pea and marble stages of the fruit
  • In Second fortnight of   January spray of chloripyriphos 2.5 ml or dichlorovas 1.5 ml or carbaryl 3 gms per litre of water especially in those garden where previous incidence of this recorded. Repeat spray of chloripyriphos 2.5 ml or dichlorovas 1.5 ml or carbaryl 3 gms or Neem oil 3ml + chloripyriphos 1 ml per litre of water at marble stage of the fruit. The sprayings should be preferably carried out during evening hours.
  • Spraying of NSKE 5 % at 10 days interval during the months of April and May  up to 15 days before harvest

 10. Red mite (Erra nalli) (Oligonychus mangiferous)

These mites both in nymphal and adult stages infest mango leaves. Their presence reflects in terms of scrapped chlorophyll resulting in yellowish tinge on the upper side and white webs on the underside of a leaf.


It can be controlled by spraying wettable sulphur 3gm/ litre of water or diafenthiuron   1 ml /lt of water.

Mango diseases and their control-

1. Powdery mildew ( Budida Rogam) Oidium mangifere

Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases of mango affecting almost all the varieties, Some times, as high as 70-80 per cent crop loss has been recorded on the individual plant basis.

The characteristic symptom of the disease is the white superficial powdery fungal growth on leaves, stalks of panicles, flowers and young fruits. The affected flowers and fruits drop pre-maturely reducing the crop load considerably or might even prevent the fruit set. Rains or mists accompanied by cooler nights during flowering are congenial for the disease spread. The fungus parasitizes young tissues of all parts of the inflorescence, leaves and fruits.


Following three sprays of fungicides at 15 days interval recommended for effective control of the disease Wettable sulphur 3-4 g/lit of water or Calixin 1 ml/lit or 1 ml Karathane / lit. water).

 2.Anthracnose (Macha Rogam) Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes

The anthracnose disease is of widespread occurrence. The disease causes serious losses to young shoots, flowers and fruits under favourable climatic conditions of high humidity, frequent rains and a temperature of 24-32oC. It also affects fruits during storage. The disease produces leaf spot; blossom blight, wither tip, twig blight and fruit rot symptoms. Tender shoots and foliage are easily affected which ultimately cause dieback of young branches. Older twigs may also be infected through wounds which in severe cases may be fatal.

Black spots develop on panicles as well as on fruits. Severe infection destroys the entire inflorescence resulting in no setting of fruits. Young infected fruits develop black spots, shrivel and drop off. Fruits infected at mature stage carry the fungus into storage and cause considerable loss during storage, transit, and marketing. The fungus perpetuates on twigs and leaves of mango or other hosts.


Dead twigs should be pruned to reduce inoculum potential Trees may be sprayed twice with Carbendazim @ 1g/lit or Thiophenate methyl 1g/lit at 15 days interval during flowering to control blossom infection. Spraying of copper fungicides (0.3%) is recommended for the control of foliar infection.

3. Bacterial canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae)

The disease causes fruit drop (10-70%), yield loss (10-85%) and storage rot (5-100%). Many commercial cultivars of mango including Langra, Dashehari, Amrapali, Mallika, and Totapuri are susceptible to this disease. The disease is found on leaves, petioles, twigs, branches and fruits,  producing water-soaked lesions and later turning into typical cankers. The disease first appears as minute water-soaked irregular lesions on any part of leaf or leaf lamina. The lesions are light yellow in colour but with age, enlarge and turn dark brown to black. They become angular, cankerous and raised, and are surrounded by chlorotic halos.In severe infections the leaves turn yellow and drop off. The water soaked lesions also develop on fruits. They often burst open, releasing highly contagious gummy ooze containg bacterial cells. The fresh lesions on branches and twigs are water soaked with longitudinal cracks.

  • Seedling certification, inspection and orchard sanitation.
  • Three sprays of streptocycline (100 ppm) or Agrimycin-100 (100 ppm) after first visual symptom at 10-days intervals.
  • Monthly sprays of Bavistin (1000 ppm) or copper oxychloride (3000 ppm) were also found effective.



  • Dr.Y.S.R. Horticulture University, Andhra Pradesh.

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