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Maize diseases and their control – Kisan Suvidha
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Maize diseases and their control

मक्का के रोग

Maize diseases and their control

Important Maize diseases are given below:-

1. Maize Downy mildew / Crazy top: Peranosclerospora sorghi

Crazy top

Symptoms:
  • Chlorotic streaks appear on the leaf and white fungus growth is seen on both the surfaces of leaf.
  • Affected plants become stunted and exhibit bushy appearance due to shortening of internodes.
  • Sometimes leafy growths in the tassel and proliferation of axillary buds on the stalk of the tassel are noticed.
Favourable Conditions :
  • Low temperature (21-33˚C);High relative humidity (90 per cent) and drizzling
  • Young plants are highly susceptible.
Management:
  • Rogue out affected plants.
  • Use resistant TNAU maize hybrid COH-6
  • Soil application of   P. fluorescens (or) T. viride @ 2.5 kg / ha + 50 kg of well decomposed FYM (mix 10 days before application) or sand at 30 days after sowing
  • Spray Metalaxyl @ 1000g(or) Mancozeb 2g/lit at 20  days after sowing.

 

2.Maize Leaf  BlightExserohilum  turcicum Helminthosporium maydis

Maize leaf blight

a.Turcicum Leaf Blight Symptoms:
  • The fungus affects the crop at young stage.
  • Early symptoms are oval, water-soaked spots on leaves.
  • Mature symptoms are characteristic cigar shaped lesions that are 3 to 15cm long.
  • Lesions are elliptical and tan in color, developing distinct dark areas as they mature that are associated with fungal sporulation.
  • Lesions typically first appear on lower leaves, spreading to upper leaves and the ear sheaths as the crop matures.
  • Under severe infection, lesions may coalesce, blighting the entire leaf.
b.Maydis Leaf Blight Symptoms: 
  • Small yellowish round or oval spots appear on the leaves.
  • These spots enlarge, become elliptical and the center becomes straw coloured with a reddish brown margin.
  • Conidia and conidiophores are formed in the center.
Favourable Conditions :
  • Optimum temperature for the germination of conidia is 8 to 27˚C provided with free water on the leaf; Infection takes place early in the wet season.
Management:
  • Rogue out affected plants.
  • Resistant cultivers  – Deccan, VL 42, Prabhat, KH-5901, PRO-324, PRO-339, ICI-701, F- 7013, F-7012, PEMH 1, PEMH 2, PEMH 3, Paras, Sartaj, Deccan 109, COH-6.
  • Soil application of   P. fluorescens (or) T. viride @ 2.5 kg / ha + 50 kg of well decomposed FYM (mix 10 days before application) or sand at 30 days after sowing
  • Spray Matalaxyl 1000 g / Mancozeb 2 g/liter at 10 days interval after first  appearance of the disease.

 

3.Maize Charcoal rotMacrophomina phaseolina

Maize charcoal rot

Symptoms:
  • The pathogen affects the plant mostly after flowering and the disease is named as Post Flowering Stalk Rot (PFSR).
  • The stalk of the infected plants can be recognized by greyish streak.
  • The pith becomes shredded and greyish black minute sclerotia develop on the vascular bundles.
  • Shredding of the interior of the stalk often causes stalks to break in the region of the crown.
  • The crown region of the infected plant becomes dark in colour.
  • Shredding of root bark and disintegration of root system are the common features.
  • High temperature and low soil moisture (drought) favours the disease.
Management:
  • Follow crop rotation
  • Avoidance of water stress at flowering time reduced disease incidence
  • Avoid nutrient stress.
  • Apply potash @ 80 kg/ha in endemic areas
  • Soil application of   P. fluorescens (or) T. viride @ 2.5 kg / ha + 50 kg of well decomposed FYM (mix 10 days before application) or sand at 30 days after sowing.

 

4.Corn rust: Puccinia sorghi  

corn rust

Symptoms:
  • On both the surfaces of the leaf, brown pustules are seen.
  • These represent the uredosori of the fungus.
  • The alternate host is Oxalis corniunlata.
  • Cool temperature and high relative humidity favours the disease.
Favourable condition:
  • Optimum temperature for the germination of conidia is 10 to 12˚C
Management:
  • Destroy altrenate plant host
  • Soil application of   P. fluorescens (or) T. viride @ 2.5 kg / ha + 50 kg of well decomposed FYM (mix 10 days before application) or sand at 30 days after sowing
  • Spray Mancozeb 1.25 kg/ha.

 

Source-

  • TamilNadu Agritech Portal

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