Jute is the second important fiber crop of India. Jute is in great demand because of the cheapness, softness, strength, length, luster and uniformity of its fiber.
It is used for manufacturing a large variety of articles such as gunny bags, hessian, ropes, strings, carpets, rugs and clothes, tarpaulins, upholstery and decoration pieces.
Varieties of Jute
Fibre yield (q/ha)
Reaction to stem rot
|A. Capsularis :|
|JRC 212 (Saubujsona)||Mar-April||22-26||Moderately resistant||Suitable for mid and high land|
|JRC 321 (Sonali)||Mid-Feb- April||21-26||Moderately susceptible||Suitable for low lying
|UPC 94 (Reshma)||Mid Feb-
|21-26||Moderately resistant||Suitable for low lying areas|
|JRC 7447 (Shyamali)||Mar-Apr||22-27||Moderately resistant||Suitable for mid and high areas|
|B. Olitorius :|
|JRO 524 (Navin)||Mid-March to May||25-30||Resistant||Suitable for medium low land, resistant to premature flowering|
|JRO 7835 (Basudev)||Mid-March to May||25-30||Moderately resistant||-do-|
|JRO 632 (Baisakhtissa)||Mid-April to
|25-30||Moderately resistant||Suitable for mid and high land|
|Sel-2 (Bahagi)||Mid-April to May||29-35||Resistant||-do-|
New Jute olitorius variety recommended
|Variety||Sowing time||Duration (days)||Fibre
|Agro-climatic zone||Disease reaction|
|Tarun||End of Mar to end of May||120-125||31.50||All zones||Resistant to stem rot and root rot|
Soil for jute cultivation
Loam or sandy loam is preferable.
Land Preparation for Jute
Jute requires a clean and fine seed bed. The land is to be plowed and laddered 5-6 times to obtain a fine seedbed.
In termite and cricket infested fields, the soil is to be treated with malathion 5% dust @ 30 kg/ha.
In soils where pH is below 5.5, lime should be applied at least 21 days before sowing @ 20-30 q/ha once in every three years.
- For Line sowing:
1.capsularis : 6-7 kg/ha or 800-900 g/bigha.
2.olitorius : 5-6 kg/ha or 660-800 g/bigha.
1.capsularis : 10-11 kg/ha or 1300 – 1500g/bigha.
2.olitorius : 6-7 kg/ha or 800 – 900g/bigha.
For line sown a crop, the spacing is 22-25 cm between rows and 5-7 cm between plants. Optimum plant stand should be 50-60/ sq.m after thinning.
Manures and Fertilizers for Jute
Wherever possible cow dung or compost should be applied @ 5t/ha during land preparation; and some nutrients thus supplied will be reduced by the corresponding reduction from the recommended dose of fertilizer. One ton of cow dung or compost supplies approximately 5 kg N, 2-5 kg P2O5 and 5.0 kg K2O.
|A. For Capsularis:|
|K 2O||30||M O P||50||7|
|B. For Olitorius:|
|K 2O||25||M O P||42||6|
Note: In the case of phosphatic fertilizers “Mussorie phos” can be substituted for SSP in olitorius jute at least three weeks ahead of final land preparation.
Mode of Application
The whole quantity of phosphatic and potassic fertilizers are to be applied as a basal dressing at the time of final land preparation. N should be applied in two equal doses at 4-6 weeks and 6-8 weeks after sowing in areas where there is no water stagnation. Otherwise, a foliar application shall be followed.
A top dressing of fertilizer mixture grade 8:10:12 at 15 DAS and MOP with a subsequent foliar spray of urea is recommended.
Foliar Spray of Urea
Where top dressing is not possible, foliar spray of urea is advocated. Urea (11.5 kg N/ha) is sprayed between 40-60 days after sowing. The first dose of urea should preferably be given 40-50 days after sowing with low volume power sprayer (Micronett) and the second spray is to be given after 10-15 days. With Aspee Bolo sprayer, three sprayings are required, the first spray being followed by two more sprays at an interval of 10 days. With hand-operated (high volume) sprayer, it will be necessary to spray two times; the first one (40-45 DAS) being followed by another spray at 55-60 days after sowing.
Preparation of Urea Solution for Foliar Spray
|Amount of Urea (kg)||Amount of water
|Strength of urea solution (%)||Nos.of
|Type of sprayer|
|12.50||90||14%||2||Micronette power sprayer|
|8.50||85||10%||3||Aspee Bolo power sprayer|
Thinning of the plants should be done 3-4 weeks after emergence. One hand weeding is to be given at the time of thinning. Wheel hoeing between rows within 4-5 weeks after sowing suppresses weeds considerably.
In broadcast crop, bindha should be used 2-3 times at 2-3 weeks of crop age. After that, thinning should be done to maintain a spacing of 12-13 cm between plants to ensure a population of about 6-7 lakh/ha (60-70 plants/m2).
Fluchloralin @ three lit/ha in 1000 litre of water is to be applied as pre-emergence spray three days before sowing.
Harvesting of Jute
Jute is to be harvested at the small pod stage to get optimum yield and good quality fibre. If jute is succeeded by rice, it can be harvested even at 100-120 days to facilitate timely plowing for rice crop. Plants are to be cut close to the ground.
The harvested plants should be made in bundles of 15-20 cm diameter and left in the field in standing position for 2-4 days not only for shedding of leaves but also to facilitate the retting process. Thin and thick plants must be bundled separately.
Retting is the most important factor responsible for producing a fine quality of jute fiber. The bundles are to be arranged side by side in the water and tied together so as to form a regular platform (Jak) and if possible, the second layer of bundles may also be placed on top and covered with materials like water hyacinth, keturi leaf, paddy straw thatch, etc. The ‘Jak’ should be submerged by putting the weight of concrete slabs, bricks, stone or dry log, use of mud clods, banana stems and freshly cut logs as materials for weight should scrupulously be avoided.
The optimum temperature of water for retting ranges from 32-340C. Depending upon the temperature condition the retting process takes about 10-30 days to complete when the fiber separates out easily from the wood. Over retting and under retting should be avoided.
To accelerate the process of retting one or two sticks of Dhaincha or Sunhemp should be inserted in each jute bundle before steeping. This provided substratum for quick microbial activity leading to multiplication of microbes and intensification of retting process.
The fibre is to be extracted from each jute stalk separately, and the stripped fibre should be washed thoroughly in clean water and dried in mild sunlight over the bamboo bar for 2-4 days. Fungal culture of good quality should also be used in extracted fibers for improving the quality of fiber.
Crop rotation in jute field is most important to maintain soil fertility and also to minimize the incidence of insect pests and diseases. The sequences of jute-rice-rapeseed and jute-rice-wheat have been found profitable and are recommended for adoption wherever possible.
Jute based cropping system for upland rainfed situation
A cropping sequence of Jute (JRO 524 or JRO 7835) – Blackgram (SB-121 or Saonia mah) – Toria (TS-38 or M-27 or TS-36) has been recommended for upland rainfed conditions.
A. Jute insect pests
1. Jute hairy caterpillar, Semi-looper, Yellow mite, Stem weevil:
- Hairy caterpillar egg masses and caterpillars are to be hand picked and destroyed by putting them in kerosenized water. For semi-looped, perches may be fixed in jute field or nearby to facilitate predatory birds to sit on.
- For control of these pests, fenitrothion 50 EC 0.5% (1 ml/ lit of water) or endosulfan 35 EC 0.07% (2 ml /lit of water) or Monocrotophos 40 EC 0.06% (1.5 ml /lit of water) should be sprayed 3 times, starting from mid June at 15 days interval or from first appearance of the pests, preferably in the upper portion of the plant. The volume of water to be used/ha (high volume sprayer) are 600,650 and 700 liters in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd spray respectively. In the case of low volume sprayer, 200-250 lit/ha of spray solution should be used.
In the standing crop damage can be checked by poison baiting made of 10 kg of wheat or rice bran with 500g gur or molasses. Alternatively, chloropyriphos 20 EC of 0.02% strength may also be used.
B.Diseases of Jute
Root rot and stem rot, seedling blight and anthracnose.
a. Seeds should be treated with Carbendazim @ 2g/kg of seed.
b. Soil pH should be raised to 5.5 by application of lime.
c. Application of potash should be increased up to 50 kg K2O/ ha.
d. When disease appears, plants should be sprayed either with Carbendazim @ 1g/lit or mancozeb @ 3g/lit of water.
e. Jute-Rice crop rotation should be followed.
f. Moderately resistant varieties like JRC 212 and JRC 7447, UPC 94 should be grown. Among the fungicides mentioned above, Bavistin is the most effective.
g. For managing to damp off, apex rot and seedling blight caused by soil bore Macrophomina phaseolina, seed treatment with the slurry method using commercial formulations of Trichoderma @ 5g/kg is effective.
For Control of nematode, Meloidogyne incognita: Apply carbofuran 3G @ 2 kg a.i. /ha as soil application in furrows at the time of sowing.
- Assam Agriculture University.