Farming systems Scenario in the region
Crop production along with rearing of milch animals (crops + dairy) is the prevailing farming system in the western plain zone of utter Pradesh as about 96 per cent farmers of the area adopt this system. As a component of farming systems sugarcane–wheat and rice-wheat are the major cropping systems in the region. Based on the prevailing market rates of different inputs and outputs during the year 2004 – 05, the net return under sugarcane–wheat and rice–wheat cropping system estimated to be Rs.39689/- and 24048/- /ha, respectively showing that sugar cane wheat system is more advantageous than rice-wheat cropping system. The economic analysis based on farm holding size revealed that in sugarcane–wheat net returns increased with increase in farm holding size but in the case of rice- wheat it was inversely related.
Highest net returns (Rs. 41133/-/ha) were realized by large farmers under the sugarcane-wheat system. Whereas in the case of rice-wheat, highest returns (Rs.26558/- /ha) were recorded with sub-medium farmers. With regard to dairy animals an average number of milch animals per family were found to be 0.56, 1.16, 1.99 and 2.57 for small, sub-medium, medium and large farmers respectively with an overall average of 1.53. The combined economics of this system indicates that rearing of dairy animals with crop production may further increase the income of different categories of farmers ranging from Rs. 760 to Rs.1712/ per family per year. Data pertaining to the comparative economics of different farming systems/ enterprises are predicted It was observed that except orchards, farmers earn higher incomes per unit area by adopting enterprises other than crops + dairy, a prevailing farming system of the area.
The marginal increase in economic profits over existing farming system (crops + dairy) ranged from 40 percent under vegetable cultivation to 75 percent with floriculture. However, risk is more because of high fluctuations in demand and price of these commodities Observations also suggested that backyard poultry (1000 birds per family), Apiary( 50 boxes per family), floriculture and vegetables may add considerably to the income of a farmer (Table 2) with higher B: C ratio, however, it requires market link. The study thus suggested that farmers of the region can think of diversifying their farming system with the inclusion of the other enterprises. However, adoption of new enterprises should depend upon farmer’s skills, resources, availability of credit, future demand, and availability of market channels in the area.
|Cropping/ Farming System||Small||Sub- medium||Medium||Large||Mean
|A. Sugarcane –wheat system|
|B. Rice-wheat system|
|C. Farming system (Crop+ dairy based farming system)|
Observations also suggested that backyard poultry (1000 birds per family), Apiary( 50 boxes per family), floriculture and vegetables may add considerably to the income of a farmer (Table 2) with higher B: C ratio, however, it requires a market link. The study thus suggested that farmers of the region can think of diversifying their farming system with the inclusion of the other enterprises. However, adoption of new enterprises should depend upon farmer’s skills, resources, availability of credit, future demand, and availability of market channels in the area.
Table 2. Economic analysis of different farming systems
|Farming system||Cost of cultivation
|Crops + Dairy (Existing system)||54960||95742||40782||1.74
*Economic analysis of bee-keeping is based on 50 boxes and of poultry on 1000 birds per family-based on prevailing market rates of inputs and outputs during 2004-05
The survey of existing farming systems of western Uttar Pradesh revealed that there is wide gap between farmer yield and achievable yield of different farm commodities. The farmer yield, achievable yield and gap in the yield of some farm commodities are given in table 3 below;
Table 3. Gaps between farmer yield and achievable yield of the component enterprises
|Farm commodities||Farmer yield (Av.) q/ha||Achievable yield(Av.) q/ha||Gap (%)
|Milk (Improved cow) (Buffaloes)||7.36 kg/animal/day
Similarly, the production of other enterprises such as horticultural crops, bee keeping and fishery etc. is also much less than the potential yield of different commodities.
Constraints responsible for yield gaps
The constraints analysis is most important exercise in order to find out or suggest specific solutions to specific problems. With the help of survey following problems/ constraints were analyzed to identify researchable issues/interventions to make the different enterprises more profitable:
A. Crop production
● Late planting of crops, especially of sugarcane and wheat.
● Use of higher seed rates in wheat
● Poor seed management almost in all the crops
● No seed treatment
● Improper sowing methods mainly broadcasting in wheat
● Excess use of N, imbalanced use of nutrients and improper application methods
● Use of poor quality FYM
● Lack of knowledge about disease and pests management in respect of application methods, time of application, rates of pesticides and use of right pesticides.
B. Animal husbandry
● Rearing of Non-descript animals
● Feeding of animals with poor quality feed and fodder
● Animals are not fed with balanced concentrates
● Incidence of diseases and other problems
● Fertility problem, anoestrus, repeat breeding, low conception rate, improper
time of service, service by local and non-descriptive bull
● Little use of minerals, salts and vitamins
C. Horticultural crops
● Mango: The main problems of mango include alternate bearing, malformation, a disease like bacterial blight and powdery mildew and pests like a hopper and mealy bug, taking orchard by non-traditional farmers, growing unsuitable crops in orchards and lack of processing units.
● Vegetables: In vegetable main problems were non-availability of good quality seed, sowing of seed without proper treatment, lack of suitable varieties and suitable growing techniques and pests and disease problems.
● Floriculture: There is no suitable variety of marigolds, particularly for the rainy season
and poor plant protection measures.
D. Bee- keeping
● Lack of technical know- how, adoption at small scale, non-availability of desired flower plants round the year for honey bees for feeding, lack of improved honey bees colonies and incidence of pests and diseases.
● Lack of technical know-how to farmers, poor housing facilities, non-availability of electricity, not taking regular batches of poultry.
- Social factor, use of small size ponds, theft, poisoning, lack of technical know-how and unawareness among farmers.
- The overall analysis of the various characters observed during the characterization survey revealed the present scenario of demand and supply of different inputs/commodities required for livelihood and/or at least subsistence of a family.
Crops: – The farmers grow selected crops and are dependent on the local market mainly for pulses oilseeds and some times green fodder too. – The annual minimum need of a family for food, fodder and fuel are not met out.
Dairy:- Farmers, as well as land fewer families, rear indigenous low-yielding (4-6 kg milk/day) breeds of buffaloes and cows. Fodders having very low nutritive value including wheat straw and sugarcane tops are fed as fodder for more than six months. Green fodders are lacking during Sept.-November – Rearing of uneconomical animals and lack of nutritious green fodders.
Fruit cultivation:- Mango, guava, peach and pear are major fruit trees. The fruit orchards, however, are dominated by mango mixed in different ratios of peach/pear or guava. Farmers grow any of the field crops even sugar cane or rice or wheat or sorghum in newly planted orchards – Lack of technological know-how.
Bee keeping:- Bee keeping is practised mainly by the orchard owners or nearby farmers of the orchard as this need regular flowering crops/trees. Small land holders do not prefer fruit tree plantations and flowering crops.
Fishery, piggery and poultry:– Few farmers adopted these three socially less accepted enterprises. Maintaining a certain depth of water in the fish pond through out the year is the major constraint of fish farming. Likewise, diseases in pig and poultry.
- Project Directorate for Farming System Research-ICAR