The Indian and Chinese major carps, viz. catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) generally breed in riverine conditions. Though they show gonadal maturation upto a point in captivity in ponds, yet the final phase of maturation and ovulation/spermiation do not normally take place in pond ecosystem. However, they breed in bundth type of tanks. The country, thus had been primarily depending on riverine carp seed resources till the Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI) evolved a technique of induced breeding through hypophysation for Indian major carps in 1957 and Chinese carps in 1962. The technique has since been improved, refined and standardised at the Institute.

In the traditional system the survival rate of carp fry in nursery ponds hardly exceeds 5% while fingerling rearing practice does not exist at all. Since production of fry and fingerlings are crucial inputs in modern farming, the Institute conducted experiments extended over a number of years that finally resulted in packages of practices with high survival r~tes of fry and fingerlings for both Indian and Chinese carps.

The detailed account of the packages of practices relating to induced breeding, hatching, nursery and rearing pond management, developed at CIFRI are presented in this bulletin in a manner that would serve as guideline for fishery extension workers.


The successful development of the technique of induced breeding through hypophysation, evolved at CIFRI, ensures breeding of both Indian and Chinese major carps in captivity…read more


Nursery ponds are usually small, 0.02 – 0.05 ha in area, with water depth between 1.0 and 1.5 m. Seasonal ponds are preferable to perennial ones since seasonal exposure of the pond bed to direct sunlight helps in improving pond conditions…read more



Fry are raised to fingerling size in rearing ponds in about 3 months period. The package of practices, as developed at CIFRI, for ensuring healthy growth and better survival of fingerlings is as more





  • Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore