In India, groundnut is one of the most important oilseed crops and occupies an area of 5.86 m ha with production and productivity of 8.26 m tons and 1411 kg/ha, respectively (2010-11). The main groundnut growing states are Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Rajasthan. It is also known as peanut, monkey nut or moongfali. Botanical name of groundnut is Arachishypogaea which is derived from Greek word Arachis means legume and hypogaea mean below ground, referring to the formation of pods in the soil.
It plays an important role in the dietary requirement of resource-poor woman and children. Groundnut kernels are also used for the preparation of food products like chikkis, groundnut milk, butter, curd including different bakery products. Groundnut cake obtained after extraction of oil is used as valuable organic manure and feeding material for livestock. It consists of 7.3% N, 1.5% P2O5 and 1.3% K2O. The peanut haulms contain crude protein 8– 5%, lipids 1–3% and minerals 9–10%. These are used as cattle feed either in fresh or in dried stage or preparing hay or silage.
The peanut shells or pod walls which constitute nearly about 25% of total pod weight are used as bedding material for poultry or as mulching material during the summer season to reduce the evaporative losses. Shell material is also used as filler material for making mixed fertilizers and as insulation material for buildings or as fuel in boilers.
High-yielding varieties of Groundnut
|Oil content( %)||Special character|
|AK12-24||Bunchy||105||16.00||70||48||Resistant to leaf spot and rust, seeds rosy in colour having no dormancy|
|Smruti OG52-(1)||Bunchy||110||25.00||72||51||Kernel bold, red in colour, resistant to collar rot and stem rot, no dormancy.|
|TAG 24||Bunchy||110||25.00||72||53||Resistant to bud necrosis, leaf spot.|
|ICGS 11||Bunchy||125||25.00||70||53||Plants are dwarf with dark green leaves.|
|TMV 2||Bunchy||115||16.00||70||51||Seed salmon in colour spheroidal in shape, moderate resistant to early, late leaf spot and rust dormancy absent.|
Favourable soil type for groundnut cultivation
Select well-drained, sandy loam soil, well supplied with calcium and a moderate amount of organic matter. In Orissa, such soil is found in flood receded river valleys of the coastal districts. These soils are ideally suited to rainfed rabi groundnut. The optimum soil pH for groundnut is 6.0 to 6.5, but a range of 5.5 to 7.0 is acceptable.
Field preparation for groundnut
Plough the land 2 to 3 times at optimum soil moisture to secure good surface tilth to a depth of 15 cm. Follow planking after each ploughing to conserve moisture. Use improved plough (MB plough/bose or rocket plough) and power tiller with motivator or tractor with cultivator for good seed bed preparation. A good seedbed has a great significance for successful groundnut cultivation as it allows early root penetration and easy pegging and pod formation. Collect the weeds and stubble of the preceding Kharif crop. Apply FYM or compost @ 5.0 t/ha and incorporate it before final land preparation. Use chlorpyriphos 1.0% dust @ 25kg/ha at final land preparation in termite prone fields.
Scope for the lime application does not exist in rabi groundnut raised on residual soil moisture. However, lime can be applied in acid soils under irrigated conditions. Apply lime as per soil test result or @ 1.25t/ha at least one month before sowing.
Seed treatment of groundnut
Treatment with organomercurial compound should not be taken up when the seeds are treated with Rhizobium culture. Rhizobium culture treatment should be taken up after seven days of the seed treatment with the mixture of carbendazim 0.1% + thiram 0.15% or with( carboxyn 37.5% + thiram 37.5%) @ 0.15%. Add sodium or ammonium molybdate @ 3g/10 kg kernel along with bacterial culture. About 1.5 kg of Rhizobium culture would be required to treat the seeds for one hectare.
Sow the rabi crop which is raised on residual soil moisture in the month of November and the irrigated summer crop in the second fortnight of January. Sow the seeds in lines at a spacing of 25cmX 10 cm for bunchy and semi-spreading types. The seed rate is 125 kg kernel/ha. Use groundnut planter or follow dibbling behind the plough for ensuring line sowing. Ensure depth of sowing within 5 cm of the soil under sufficient moisture conditions and deeper placement at 8-10cm in light soils with insufficient surface moisture. Follow laddering for better seed-soil contact.
Fertilizers dose for Groundnut
Apply 20 kg N and 40 kg each of P2O5 and K2O/ha in the furrows before sowing and mix with the soil so that seeds do not come in direct contact with fertilizer, phosphorous should be applied in form of single super phosphate which also meets the sulphur requirement of the crop i.e. 30kg S/ha. Apply well-powdered gypsum @250 kg/ha close to the base of plants at 20-25 days after sowing on either side and incorporate in the soil, so that it remains in top 3 cm of soil. This is required because calcium has to be supplied to the developing pods independently.
As movements of calcium from vegetative parts to the pods through gynophores is limited due to narrow xylem vessel in the gynophores. This will improve the number of pods and pod filling. Apart from 22.3% calcium, gypsum also supplies 18.6% sulphur to the soil. Sulphur deficiency is likely to develop where groundnut is taken up continuously with high analysis fertilizer like urea and DAP. However, gypsum is not required when SSP or Ammonium sulphate is used as it also supplies sulphur.
Perform hoeing and weeding within 3-4 weeks after sowing to make the crop weed free. It also helps to conserve the residual soil moisture. Subsequently remove the weeds manually wherever needed so that it will not damage the gynophores and interfere pegging. Alternatively, apply pendimethalin or metolachlor 0.75kg/ha or alachlor 1.0 kg/ha as pre-emergence spray 1-2 days after sowing or fluchloralin 0.75 kg/ha as pre-planting incorporation one day before sowing. Post-emergence of quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 0.05 kg/ha at 20 days after sowing takes care of the later flush of grassy weeds under irrigated conditions.
Irrigation method of groundnut-
It is advisable to sow the crop with pre-sowing irrigation, or else apply one post sowing irrigation to facilitate germination. Subsequently, provide irrigation at 10-15 days interval depending upon soil and weather conditions. The critical growth stages for irrigation are flowering, pegging and pod formation. Early season stress at the vegetative stage is helpful for uniform flowering. In flat bed method of sowing, apply irrigation in cross channels made at an interval of 4-5 meter.
Treat the soil against termites and white grub attack.
Diseases of Groundnut-
Dark brown to almost black circular spots appear on leaves, petiole, and stem. In severe cases, the spots coalesce causing defoliation of the plants.
Before sowing treat the seed with thiram or ( carboxin 37.5% + thiram 37.5%) DS @ 1.5 g/kg of kernel. Spray with ziram (0.2%) or chlorothalonil(0.25%) or Mancozeb @ 750 g or copper oxychloride @ 0.6 kg or carbendazim @150 g/acre in 200 litres of water 2-3 times at an interval of 10 days,
2.Aspergillus seedling blight or collar rot/foot rot/alfa rot
The pathogen causes rotting of the seeds in the soil whereas in the later, the disease in characterised by wilting and death of seedling accompanied by a rotting of hypocotyls region and development of black lesions.
Seed treatment with carbendazim (0.15%)+ thiram (0.3%) or carbendazim @1.5g/kg of kernel or with thiophenate methyl (0.15%). Spray the crop with mancozeb (0.25%) or carbendazim (0.15%) or copper oxychloride ( 0.25%) or (mancozeb63% + carbendazim 12%) @ 0.2%.
3. Stem rot
Diseased plants turn yellow necrotic and ultimately may wilt. Diseased tissues develop yellowish brown mustard like sclerotia mixed with white cottony.
Treat the seed with carbendazim (0.15%) + thiram (0.3%) or (carboxyn 37.5% + thiram 37.5%) DS @ 0.15%. Spraying with carbendazim (0.15%) or with thiophanate methyl (0.2%). Soil drenching around the root zone of the plants with thiophanate methyl(0.15%) is effective.
Rust appears on leaflets. The yellowish brown pustules on the lower leaf surface, corresponding upper surface showing yellow dots, turning brown. Leaves dry and prematurely shed.
Spray with mancozeb(0.2%), sulphur dusting @ 12kg/ac or spray with tridemorph (0.15%) or hexaconazole(0.2%).
Yield per acre
When leaves of the plant become yellow and dry, Groundnut is harvested. In Kharif season it gives 6-8q/acre yield, but in Rabi, it yields about 8-10 q/acre.
“Introduction – DGR.”ICAR-Directorate of Groundnut Research. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May. 2017 <http://www.dgr.org.in/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/agro.pdf>.
Introduction – DGR. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dgr.org.in/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/agro.pdf
- ICAR-Directorate of Groundnut Research.