In Goa, the goats are mainly brought from Karnataka and Maharashtra for slaughter. Cleanliness and hygiene maintenance helps -to reduce diseases to a large extent. Regular deworming, balanced feeding, vaccination of commonly prevailing diseases is a way to maintain a healthy herd. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), blue tongue and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are important infections of goats. CCPP is a severe disease of goats caused by Mycoplasma. CCPP gained prominence as a cause of several disease conditions in sheep and goats e.g. polyarthritis, pneumonia, septicemia.
PPR is a highly contagious pathogen and belongs to the Morbilli virus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is an acute febrile viral disease of goats characterized by mucopurulent nasal and ocular discharge, necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia. The disease is endemic in India and causes large economic losses each year due to high mortality and morbidity in infected goats. Foot and mouth disease is also common in goats. Blisters or vesicles form in lips, tongue, teats, or the coronary band of the hoof which tend to become lame and possibly salivate excessively.
Brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis causes abortion in late pregnancy. Retention of placenta and metritis are common. In male goat, infertility, orchitis and swollen joints are seen. Goats should be tested for brucellosis and isolated or culled if found positive. Cases of contagious ecthyma have been observed in goats in Goa. It develops pustular and scabby lesions on the muzzle and lips. To check the spread of contagious ecthyma, infected goat kids should be isolated. The lesions should be treated with antiseptic drugs. In generalized or systemic infection antibiotic should be given to prevent secondary bacterial complication Bronchopneumonia and gastroenteritis have been observed in goat kids.
In a study conducted at ICAR complex for Goa samples from different herds from Goa were tested. Out of 140 sera tested from goats, 37 (26.43%) and 4 (2.86%) were positive for CCPP and PPR, respectively. Out of 131 sera tested for the blue tongue, 76 (58.01 %) were seropositive. Goats should be vaccinated against contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and enterotoxemia.
It is hardy, prolific and most economical among all milk producing farm animals. The economic value of goats can also be realized from the continuously increasing trend in their population during the last 40 years, in spite of more than 1/3’d population being slaughtered for meat and skin every year.
- Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa