Goat is an animal of the arid and semi-arid region. They prefer hot, dry climate. The climate of Goa is hot and humid. Air temperature ranges from 25 – 35 0 C. Humidity ranges from 80 % to 99 %. So from the climatic and topographical point of view, Goa is not very suitable for goat rearing. However, breeds suitable for hot, humid climates like Konkon Kanyal and Osmanabadi was tried to maintain at Goa.
The comfort zone for dairy goats is between 55 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Non-sweating animals are much less sensitive to declining temperatures than to rising temperatures. Milk production, feed consumption, and comfort are not affected by temperatures between 0 and 55 degrees Fahrenheit, but temperatures over 80 degrees Fahrenheit seriously reduce feed intake and milk output. Therefore, the object is not how to keep the goats warm in winter, but how to keep them cool in summer.
The movement of air, either by mechanical or natural means, to remove heat, moisture and odors is a necessary part of a housing plan. Most pneumonia problems with dairy goats can be traced to inadequate ventilation. Wet walls and ceilings are the results of improper ventilation, poor insulation or a combination of the two. The rate of air movement is influenced by the amount of animal heat produced, and the temperature needs to maintain in the building.
Additional heat and insulation may be required to keep the stable air fresh and to prevent water pipes from freezing in the winter. An air inlet system also must be provided for good air distribution. Ventilation entails more than installing a fan to move some air. Proper ventilation during the summer may require moving 150 to 200 cubic feet of air/minute. Winter weather may reduce the amount of air to be exhausted to as little as 20 cubic feet/minute. With proper ventilation, the health of the animals and the longevity of the building are maintained.
Windows are essential in a closed barn. They permit sunlight for warmth and drying and provide a source of vitamin D for the animals. Well-lighted barns usually are kept cleaner. In summer, open windows are important for air movement.It was found that live weight; weight gain and average daily gain were significantly correlated with maximum temperature, minimum temperature, morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity and solar radiation, but non – significantly correlated with wind speed and rainfall. The weekly live weight of Jamunapari goat decreased significantly by 180 g per % rise of evening relative humidity.
Average daily gain in grower and finisher goat were reduced by 46.11 g / d and 24.14 g / d respectively per 0 C rise of effective temperature (Das et al, 2010). The mean rectal temperature (0C), respiration rate (number / minute) and pulse rate (number / minute) of adult Black Bengal goats maintained on deep litter system of management were 39.14 + 0.15, 30.67 + 0.36 and 77.77 + 0.88 in summer; 38.45 + 0.16, 29.29 + 0.31 and 77.08 + 0.81 in monsoon and 38.01 0.12, 27.30 + 0.32 and 75.56 + 0.76 in winter respectively.
All the values were within normal range. So, complete confinement on deep litter did not alter the physiological responses indicating their adaptability on deep litter system of housing and management. However, the highly positive correlation was found between these physiological responses of the goats and climatic component (Das et al., 2006).
- Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa