Different Breeds of Goat are given below:-
The Black Bengal is found in the eastern region of India, in the states of West Bengal and adjoining areas in Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, Mizoram, and Tripura. According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, the number of Black Bengal goats in the country is 2, 09, 27, 557. This breed has the highest population in India. The animals are predominantly black, brown or grey and sometimes white. This breed is famous for quality meat production and skin quality. They have soft, glossy short hair and are dwarfed in size. The legs are short with a straight back and a beard is found in both sexes. The horns are slightly tilted upward or straight. It is the most prolific among Indian breeds.
Multiple births are common 2, 3 or even 4 kids are born at a time. Kidding takes place twice a year. Birth weight of kid is associated with the pre and post-weaning growth of goat. So, in a study on different non-genetic factors affecting birth weight of Black Bengal goat, it was revealed that type of birth and season of birth had a significant effect on birth weight of goat while sex had no significant effect (Das and Roy, 1999). The meat is excellent and palatable. The average adult weight of male and female is 25 – 30 kg and 20 – 25 kg respectively. Milk yield is low and is barely sufficient to feed the kids. Skin of the Black Bengal goat is used for making chamois leather – highly valued speciality leather.
The Ganjam breed, also known as Dalua, is found in eastern India, primarily in the Gajapati, Rayagada and Koraput districts of Odisha. According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, the number of Ganjam goats in the country is 1, 48,473. It is a medium sized dual breed. They are tall, leggy animals. The coat may be black, white, brown or spotted, but black predominates. The hair is short and lustrous. Ears are medium-sized and both bucks and does have long, straight horns, directed upward with a medium-length tail. The average adult weight of male and female is 40 kg and 30 kg respectively. The kidding percentage is 82 and the litter size is primarily single (95 %). Kidding takes place once a year. Milk yield is about 2 kg/day and the average lactation period is 150 days.
The Jakhrana breed is found in the north-west arid and semi-arid regions mainly in eastern Rajasthan. The breed derives its name from the Jakhrana village in Alwar district of Rajasthan where it is found in its purest form. According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, the number of Jakhrana goats in the country is 19, 53,046, fairly widespread in the states of Rajasthan and Haryana. They are large milch breed. The coat is predominantly black with white spots on the ears and the muzzle is short and lustrous. The face line is straight, with a narrow and slightly bulging forehead.
The breed looks similar to the Beetal, the major difference being that the Jakhrana is taller. The ear length is medium and the udder is large, with conical teats. Does are reared for milk. Jakhrana goats graze on natural pastures but can also be managed on stall feeding. This breed is well known for its milk potential averaging a daily yield between 2 to 5 litres. The milk has a relatively higher fat content (5.06 %), SNF (8.60 %) and protein (3.70%). Average adult weight of male and female is 50-55 kg and 35-40 kg. These goats show good prolificacy and the kidding percentage is 90. Kidding takes place twice a year with a twinning percentage of 80 – 90 %.
Jamunapari- The Pride Goat of India, is large dual-purpose breed commonly found in UP in between Jamuna, Ganga and Chambal river. According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, the number of Jamunapari goats in the country is 10, 56,633. The National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources has put the Jamunapari goat breed on the ‘endangered species list’. It is predominantly white in colour with long and pendulous ear, Roman nose and tuff hairy buttock. They are considered the largest and most elegant of the long-legged goats of India.
Both sexes are horned with the short and thin tail. The breed has well-developed udder round in shape with large conical teats. The average adult weight of male and female is 45-50 kg and 40-45 kg respectively. Average milk yield is 1.50 – 2.00 kg/day with a total lactation yield of 280 kg in a lactation period of 270 days. The fat content of milk ranges from 5.2 to 7.8 per cent.
Average growth was recorded to be 70 -75 g / day. Single birth is very common and twin birth is less observed. Litter size at birth is single 70 % while twins 30 %. They kid twice in a period of 18 months. Jamunapari (40) goats were maintained in goat farm of ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna. Goats were reared in semi intensive system of Management. Goats were being fed concentrate mash feed besides grazing. The highest growth was observed in the 1 st week i.e. 134.07 g / day with an overall mean of 79.19 g / day (Das et al, 2010).
The Beetal is native to the districts of Gurdaspur, Amritsar and Ferozepur in Punjab. As per the 18th Livestock Census 2007, there are 3, 04,223 Beetal goats distributed across the states of Punjab, Haryana, Jharkhand, Assam and Himachal Pradesh. The breed is a good dairy type, second to Jamunapari in size but is superior to it with respect to proliferation and adaptability to various agro-climatic zones and also to stall feeding. It is well known for milk production and has largely been used in cross breeding and other goat improvement programmes.
The goat resembles Jamunapari goat but smaller in size and weight.Coat colour is predominantly black (90 %) or brown (10 %) with white patches; long and flat ear; under large and well developed. Both sexes have thick, medium sized horns, carried horizontally with a slight twist directed backwards and upward and Roman nose. Male possesses marked beard while females are beardless. Average adult weight of male and female is 50 – 55 kg and 35 – 40 kg. Average milk yield is 1.50 – 2.00 kg/day. The average milk yield per lactation is 288 kg. In addition to being considered a good dairy breed, the Beetal is also known for its good quality meat and skin. Unlike Jamunapari twins are common in Beetal. The litter size is single 41 %, twins 53 % and triplets 6 %.
The Barbari breed has mainly evolved and adapted in the northwestern arid and semi-arid regions, and more specifically in the Etah, Etawah, Hathras, Mathura, Agra and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh. According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, the number of Barbari goats in the country is 31,55,723 fairly widely distributed across the states of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Jharkhand with a few found in Delhi. The Barbari is a dual purpose (milk and meat) goat breed and is maintained on browsing and grazing. In addition to being a good milkier it is highly prolific and generally, gives birth to twin and triplets. It is dwarf breed highly suited for stall-feeding conditions and hence generally found in the cities. They are white in colour with tan spots having short ears and short legs.
This breed is prolific. The adult body weight in male and female is 40 and 25 kg. Average milk yield is 0.750 – 1.00 kg/day. Average lactation yield is 130 – 200 kg of milk in a lactation length of 150 days with a fat percentage of about 5 %. It kids twice in a period of 12 – 15 months. Twin and triplet are very common like Bengal breed. Litter size at birth is generally, single 25 %, twins 65 %, and triplets 10 %.
Osmanabadi goats are native to the Latur, Tuljapur and Udgir taluks of Osmanabad district of Maharashtra, from where they derive their name. They are also fairly widespread in Karnataka and the Nizamabad district of Andhra Pradesh. According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, the number of Osmanabadi goats in the country is 15, 53,208. The breed is reared, bred and well adapted throughout the Maharashtra state (Sahare et al, 2009). The goats are large in size. The colour of the coat varies but is mostly black (73 %), with the rest being white, brown or spotted. Ninety per cent males are horned; females may be horned or polled.
The breed is considered useful both for meat and milk. Average daily milk yield varies from 0.5 to 1.5 kg for a lactation length of about 4 months. The adult body weight in male and female is 35 and 30 kg respectively. In favourable conditions, they breed regularly twice a year and twinning is common.
Konkan Kanyal goat is meat type breed adapted to high rainfall and hot and humid climate of Konkan region of Maharashtra. Konkan Kanyal goats were registered as a distinct breed by the National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources in May 2012. They are native to the Konkan region of Maharashtra and are reared mostly by the Dhangar and Maratha communities for meat.
These goats are mainly black with a white marking in a specific pattern. Animals have typical white bands on black face and black ear with a white margin. The ventral surface of the body and the legs are white mostly. Konkan Kanyal goats have bilateral white strips from nostrils to ears; a flat and broad forehead; flat, long drooping ears; backward, straight, pointed, cylindrical horns; white muzzle and long legs, literally black, medially white from knee to the fetlock joint. The body weight of adult bucks and does averages 35 and 30 kg respectively. Konkan Kanyal goats are regular breeders and breed round the year, with a twinning percentage of about 66 %.
9.Malabari / Tellicherry
Malabari also was known as Tellicherry are native to Kerala. Malabari goats are reared for milk and meat and their skin is popular in the tanning industry. According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, the number of Malabari goats in the country is 7, 10,523. The animals are medium in size. They have no uniform colour and the coat varies from completely white to black. All males and a small number of females are bearded. They have a medium sized head with a flat and occasionally a roman nose with medium sized ears directed outward and downward.
Malabari goats are reared under a semi-intensive management system, with 4 to 6 hours of grazing supplemented with stall feeding in the evening. The breed is quite prolific and has a 50 % twinning, 25 % triplets and 5 % quadruplets kidding percentage. The milk yield ranges from 0.5 to 1.5 kg/day with an average of 90 kg in a lactation period of 150 days. The adult weight of male and female is 40 and 35 kg respectively.
It is distributed in Sirohi and Udaipur districts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Karnataka. According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, the number of Sirohi goats in the country is 29, 09,286. It is compact medium-sized animals. Coat colour predominantly brown with light or dark brown patches, very few individuals are completely white. The body is covered fairly densely with hair which is short and coarse. Ears are flat and leaf like, medium sized and drooping. Both sexes have small horns, curved upward and backwards. The adult weight of male and female is 40 – 45 and 35 – 40 kg respectively. The age at first kidding is 19 – 20 months and the litter size is one kid per birth. The breed is well suited to stall feeding.
The breed is used mainly for meat. The milk yield is relatively small, about 0.4 to 0.5 kg/day, with an average milk yield of 65 kg over a 145 day lactation period. Usually doe kids twice a year, giving birth to single in 40 % while twins in 60 % cases. They kid twice a year. On average, the birth weight is about 2.0 kg. As an indicative of a stressful condition of goat under certain housing and environment,the sweating rate of this breed was determined. It was observed that it varied from 74.57 g / m 2 / h at neck region to 59.37 g / m 2/ h at the sacrum. The higher sweating rate would be due to larger size of the sweat gland and higher concentration of sweat gland at neck region (Das, 1995).
The native tract of the Marwari goat breed is western Rajasthan – the districts of Barmer, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Jalore, Pali and Nagaur. According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, the number of Marwari goats in the country is 75, 74,632. This is a dual purpose breed, reared for both meat and milk and is well adapted to the harsh environment of the Thar desert. The Marwari goat is a medium sized animal, predominantly black in colour. The hair covering is lustrous and prominent and grows at the rate of about 10-12 cm annually. The thick hair protects the animal from the extremes of temperature found in this region. The hair is used to weave traditional harnesses for camels, and also carpets and bags, the latter used by potters.
The male has a thick beard. The ears are small and flat, carried on a small head. Both sexes have short pointed horns, directed upward and backward. The tail is small and thin. The udders are fairly well developed but small and round with small teats placed laterally. The adult weight of male and female is 35 – 40 and 30 – 35 kg respectively. The milk yield varies from 0.5 to 1 kg when reared on grazing and from 2 to 3 kg under stall-fed conditions. Kidding is primarily single births, with a twinning percentage of around 10%
12.Kutchi or Kathiawari
The Kutchi or Kathiawari, is an important dual-purpose (meat and milk) goat breed, native to the Kutch district of Gujarat. According to the 18th Livestock Census 2007, the number of Kutchi goats in the country is 6, 61,496. They are medium-sized animals. The coat is predominantly black, but a few white spotted animals are also found. Ears are medium in size, floppy and drooping with typical white markings. The coat is shaggy and dull in appearance with medium to long coarse hair. Both sexes have short, thick horns pointed upward. The adult weight of male and female is 45 and 40 kg respectively. Average milk yield is around 2 kg/day under stall-fed conditions and 0.5 to 1 kg on grazing resources. The lactation length is about 6 to 7 months. Generally, there is one kidding annually with a twinning percentage of 11.
- Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa