Variation in flower types

 Male flower-Type-1 (Plate 3)

In general, pure male trees were seen without fruits. Flowers were dissected to study the parts of flowers. Male trees had typical flowers with long pedicels, stamens ranging from 40 to 60, all fertile, centrally crowded, hemispherical rudimentary, receptacle and pistils were absent in this types.


Male flower-Type-2 (Plate 3)

Numerous stamens, all fertile, long pedicellate having rudimentary structure, conical in shape present in place of pistil, measured 5mm in length, carpels were absent.


Bisexual flower (Plate 4)

Bisexual flowers were seen on the bisexual tree having 20-30 stamens arranged in a radial fashion, all fertile, loosely arranged, not as compact as in male flowers. Pistils were fully developed and cross-section showed four locules but irregular in shape, there were four stigmatic lobes attached to the ovary. A decrease in masculinity and a strong tendency towards femininity was observed.


Female flower (Plate 4)

Flowers were seen only on female trees. The flowers had globose, well-developed ovary measuring around 3-4 mm long, stigmatic surface with eight distinct lobes, each lobe with two lines of tubercles with sessile staminodes, 8-20 in number arranged in four tufts in decussate fashion.




  • Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa
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