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Diseases of Red Gram – Kisan Suvidha
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Diseases of Red Gram

red gram diseases

Diseases of Red Gram

Major diseases of Red Gram are:-

1.Red Gram Fusarium Wilt: Fusarium udum

Red gram Wilt

Symptom:
  • Leaves initially pale, loose their turgidity, droop down and finally results in large scale withering.
  • Gradual or sudden wilting from bottom to top is observed.
  • Entire plant wilts or dies within a few days.
  • The disease incidence occurs in patches in the field.
  • Dark streaks are seen when the bark of stem below the soil level and tap root is removed.
  • The affected stem exhibit vascular browning is indicating xylem plugging with mycelia.
  • The disease is soil-borne.
Management:
  • Seed treatment with   talc formulation of T. viride @ 4g or P. fluorescens @ 10 g/kg  Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg
  • Basal soil application of  neem cake @ 150 Kg/ ha
  • Soil application of  P. fluorescens or T. viride@ 2.5 Kg/ha + 50 Kg of well decomposed FYM or sand at 30 days after sowing.
  • Spot drenching with  Carbendazim @ 1 gm/ litre

 

2.Red gram Dry Root Rot :(Scelerotial stage :Rhizoctonia bataticola ) (Pycnidial stage :Macrophomina phaseolina)

Red gram Dry root rot

Symptom:
  • The disease occurred both in young seedlings and grown up plants.
  • The lower leaves show yellowing, drooping and premature defoliation.
  • The discolored area later turns black, and death of plants occur.
  • The infected plants can be easily pulled out due to the rotting of the roots.
  • Minute dark sclerotia are seen in the shredded bark (collar region and root).
  • A large number of brown dots on the stem portion represents the pycnidial stage.
  • Prolong dry weather or drought followed by irrigation or rain favours this disease build up.
Management:
  • Seed treatment  with   talc formulation of T. viride @ 4g or P. fluorescens @ 1g/kg seed (or) Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kgNeem cake @ 150 Kg/ha
  • Soil application of  P. fluorescens or T. viride@ 2.5 Kg/ha + 50 Kg of well decomposed FYM or sand at 30 days after sowing.
  • Spot drenching with Carbendazim @ 1 gm/ litre

 

3.Alternaria Leaf Spot: Alternaria  alternata

red gram alternaria leaf spot

Symptom:
  • Initially small necrotic spots appear on the leaves, and these gradually increase in and form characteristic lesions with dark and light brown concentric ring with a wavy purple margin.
  • As infection progresses, the lesions coalesce  and  cause blighting of leaves
  • The disease is mostly confined to older leaves in adult plants but may infect new leaves of young plants, particularly in the post-rainy season.
Management:
  • Spray Mancozeb 1kg/ha

 

4.Red gram Powdery mildew: Leveillula taurica

red gram powdery mildew

Symptom:
  • It is an Oidiopsis type of powdery mildew in which the mycelium is endophytic.
  • The affected leaf shows powdery patches on the lower surface corresponding with yellowing on the upper surface.
  • Usually, older leaves show symptom first.
  • There will be premature defoliation of affected leaves.
  • The disease is airborne
Management:
  •  Spraying with Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) 5% or  Neem oil 3% twice at ten days intervals from initial disease appearance.
  • Spray Carbendazim 1g/lit or Wettablesulphur 2.5g/lit.

 

5.Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD): Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV)

red gram sterility mosaic disease

Symptom:
  • Vector: Aceria cajani
  • The affected plants are stunted due to shortening of internodes.
  • The auxiliary buds are stimulated to grow, and the branches are crowded at the top giving the bushy appearance.
  • Mainly three types of symptoms are associated viz. severe mosaic in leaflets with complete sterility, mild mosaic with partial sterility and ring spots characterized by a green island surrounded by a  chlorotic halo.
Management:
  • Roughing  out infected plants up to 40 days after sowing
  • Spraying with Fenazaquin @ 1 ml/ litre soon after the appearance of the disease and if necessary repeat after 15 days.

 

6.Red Gram Yellow Mosaic: Redgram yellow mosaic virus

red gram yellow mosaic

Symptom:
  • The disease first appears in the form of yellow, diffused spots scattered on the leaf lamina such spots slowly expand, and in later stages, yellow patches alternated with green patches developed on the leaves.
  • Newly formed leaves completely turn Infected yellow plants stunted and produce only a few pods
  • The  virus is transmitted through whitefly  Bemisia tabaci
Management:
  • Rogue out the infected plants up to 40 days.
  • Remove weed hosts periodically
  • Spray Methyldemeton @ 500 ml/ha.

Integrated disease management

  • Deep summer ploughing
  • Application of Farmyard manure @12.5 Kg/ha along with 2.5 kg of Trichoderma  viride or Pseuodomonas fluorescens
  • Seed treatment with  Talc formulation of Trichoerma  viride @ 4g or Pseuodomonas fluorescens @ 10   g/kg Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg
  • Spot drenching with Carbendazim 1 g/ litre of water to control root rot and wilt diseases
  • Avoid water stress during flowering period to control root rot
  • Rogue out infected plants up to 40 days after sowing for managing sterility mosaic and yellow mosaic diseases

 

Source-

  • TamilNadu Agritech Portal

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