Cucumber is an important summer vegetable commonly grown throughout India. Cucumber plant, as creeperm has a climbing or trailing habit, The tender fruits are eaten raw or with salt in the salad. They are also used as cooked vegetable. It is reported that the oil exacted from seeds is good for brain and body. Drinking water immediately after eating cucumber should be avoided, as it sometimes causes severe indigestion.
Climate and soil requirement of Cucumber
Cucumber is especially a warm season crop. This is very sensitive to frost. Excess humidity promotes diseases like powdery mildew and downy mildew. The optimum temperature for cucumber production is 26.40C. The seed of cucumber germinates well at 250C. A well drained loamy soil is preferred for cucumber production.
Cucumber varieties released by Punjab
Punjab Naveen (2008)-
The plants have dark green leaves, having uniform cylindrical fruit shape and attractive light green color with a smooth surface. The fruits are bitter free, having soft seeds at edible maturity and are very crispy. It is better in quality having high dry matter and vitamin C. It takes 68 days from the transplanting to harvesting. The variety is excellent in taste, appearance, color, size and texture and its average yield is 70 q/acre.
Agronomic Practices for Cucumber cultivation
One kg per acre.
The seeds are sown on both sides of the beds of width 2.5 meters at a distance of 60 cm. Sow two seeds at one place to ensure a good stand.
Low tunnel technology
To get an early yield of cucumber, the practice of low tunnel is helpful in raising a crop in early summer. It helps to protect plants against cold from December to February. The beds of 2.50 m width are prepared in the month of December. The sowing is done on both sides of beds at a distance of 45 cm.
Before sowing the seeds, flexible iron rods of 2-meter length shaped into arches/hoops are fixed manually at the distance of 2 meters so as to have the height of 45-60 cm. It will cover the paired rows on the beds. Cover the hoops with a transparent plastic sheet of 100 gauge thickness. Burry these sheets on both sides of the beds. Remove these sheets when the temperature rises outside, in the month of February.
Cucumber Fertilizers requirement
It requires 40 kg N (90 kg of Urea), 20 kg P2O5 (125 kg of Single Superphosphate) and 20 kg K2O (35 kg Muriate of Potash). Apply one-third of N along with P2O5 and K2O at the time of sowing in two parallel bands 15 cm away from the bed mark. Apply rest of the N during the early period of vine growth.
Irrigation of Cucumber
Sowing is done on the pre-irrigated furrows on top of the ridge on both sides of the beds. Subsequently, irrigation is applied second or third day of sowing. The crop is irrigated at 4-6 days interval. A total number of irrigations are 10-12.
Harvesting of Cucumber
Fruits are picked when tender and young when seeds inside the fruit are still soft. Fruits must be picked before the change in color i.e. from green to yellow.
For seed production, the fruits should be picked when brown in color. Three field inspections should be conducted. A minimum of 1000m isolation distance from different varieties of cucumber should be kept to produce true to type seed. First before flowering, second at flowering and fruiting and third before harvesting of the seed crop. All off type and diseased plants should be rogued off. For extraction of seed, the pulp of the fruit is taken out in fresh water. It is kept for one to two days to allow the seed to separate from the pulp. The seed is rubbed with hand. Heavy seeds settle down in the water and are retained.
“Package PAU (Veg) – Documents.” DocSlide. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May. 2017 <http://documents.tips/documents/package-pau-veg.html>.
Package PAU (Veg) – Documents. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://documents.tips/documents/package-pau-veg.html
- Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana.
- My Agriculture Information Bank.