Cropping systems and inputs for organic production

Western Himalayan region

Himachal Pradesh

Cropping system: Cauliflower-radish-tomato and Cabbage-radish- capsicum

Input package: Reinforced farm yard manure + vermicompost @ ½ N each + spray of aqueous leaf extract
of bhang (Cannabis sativa) for pest management.



Cropping system: Rice-wheat-Sesbania and Rice-vegetable pea

Input package: Sesbania- enriched compost + vermicompost + non edible oil cakes + farm yard manure @
¼ N each + stale seedbed + 2 hand hoeing at 20 and 40 days after sowing for weed management.


Eastern Himalayan region(Meghalaya)

Cropping system: Rice-carrot

Input package: Farm yard manure + vermicompost + local compost @ 1/3 N each + spray of Karanji @ 3
ml/lit for pest and disease management + Mulching with fresh Eupatorium/ Ambrosia alone or with one
hand weeding for weed management.


Trans Gangetic Plains (Punjab)

Cropping system: Maize-gram, maize –potato- summer moong, rice-wheat- summer moong and maize-berseem
– maize+cowpea

Input package: Green manure + farm yard manure + vermicompost @ 1/3 N each during Kharif and farm
yard manure + vermicompost + crop residue @ 1/3 N each during rabi + seed treatment with neem cake + two
sprays of Trichoderma harzianum for pest management.


Central Plateau and Hills (Madhya Pradesh)

Cropping system: Rice-wheat-berseem

Input package: Farm yard manure + neem cake @ ½ each in cereals and farm yard manure + neem cake +
vermicompost @ 1/3 N each to berseem + soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescence + two sprays of
neem extract for pest management + combination of two hand weeding along with mechanical weeding for
weed control.


Southern Plateau and Hills (Tamil Nadu)

Cropping system: Chilli- onion and turmeric +onion

Input package: Farm yard manure + non edible oil cakes @ ½ N each + neem + mahua cake +
Trichogramma+ neem spray + bird perches for pest and disease management + using of mechanical weeder
+ one hand weeding for weed management.

Performance Results

Net returns ranged from Rs. 25888 to as high as 164310/ ha were recorded in various agro climatic regions according to the cropping systems and the premium price obtained due to the organic products.

Agro-climatic region No. of years Net returns (Rs/ha.) Soil organic carbon(%)
Western Himalaya

Himachal Pradesh












Eastern Himalaya



1 164310 3.30
Trans Gangetic Plains



2 89523 0.57
Central Plateau and Hills

Madhya Pradesh


6 102811 0.76
Southern Plateau and Hills

Tamil Nadu


5 25888 0.63


Benefits / Utility

  • Profitability and Sustainability: New packages of input identified for organic production of
    systems are found to enhance net returns by more than 20 % and organic carbon by 10-15 %
    over the conventional practice of chemical farming.
  • Eco-friendliness: Organic farming package identified for different regions does not include any
    chemical input for management of pest and diseases. Hence, these packages are highly suitable
    to environment.


  • Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research
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