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Cowpea diseases and their control – Kisan Suvidha
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Cowpea diseases and their control

cowpea diseases

Cowpea diseases and their control

Major Cowpea diseases are:-

1. Cowpea Root rot and Damping off: Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Macrophomina

cowpea Root rot

Symptom:
  • Symptoms vary and include the rapid death of young succulent plants.
  • Discoloration of taproots, longitudinal cracks of the stems, stunting, wilting and poor yields.
  • Complete control of root rot and damping-off is difficult, and no variety of cowpea is resistant to root rot.
  • The persistent damp weather before the development of the first true leaf and also the crowding of seedlings due to poor seed spacing may increase damping off.
Management:
  • Soil application P. fluorescens or T. viride– 2.5 kg/ha + 50 kg of well decomposed FYM or sand
  • Spot drenching with Carbendazim @ 1 gm/ litre

 

2. Cowpea Southern blight: Sclerotium rolfsii

Symptom:
  • Southern blight is caused by a fungus that attacks roots and stems of cowpeas.
  • The first visible symptom of Southern blight is a progressive, yellowing and wilting of the foliage beginning on the lower leaves.
  • The plant dies within a few days.
  • A brownish vascular discoloration inside dead stem may extend several inches above the soil line.
  • During warm, moist conditions, the coarse, white mycelium of the fungus makes characteristic fan-shaped patterns of growth on the stem at the soil line.
  • In this white-mat of the fungus, numerous smooth, round, light-tan to dark-brown mustard seed-like bodies called sclerotia are formed.

 

3.Cowpea mosaic: Virus

cowpea mosaic
Symptom:
  • Symptoms vary and include the rapid death of young succulent plants.
  • Discoloration of taproots, longitudinal cracks of the stems, stunting, wilting and poor yields.
  • Complete control of root rot and damping-off is difficult, and no variety of cowpea is resistant to root rot.
  • The persistent damp weather before the development of the first true leaf and also the crowding of seedlings due to poor seed spacing may increase damping off.
Management:
  • Roguing out of cowpea mosaic virus-diseased plants in the early stage of growing up to 30 days and spraying twice at fortnightly intervals with Monocrotophos 500 ml/ ha (or) Methyldemeton 25 EC 500 ml/ha.

 

4. Cowpea Fusarium wilt: Fusarium oxysporum

cowpea wilt

Symptom:
  • Fusarium wilt usually causes the lower leaves on one side of the plant to turn yellow.
  • Infected plants usually are stunted and wilted as the organism develops in the food and water conducting tissues.
  • Brick red tissue can be observed in the stem when it is split lengthwise.
Management:

Fungal and viral diseases can be reduced by:

  • Treating high quality seed with fungicides labeled for cowpeas.
  • A four or five year rotation with other crops.
  • In addition to the cultural practices listed above, bury previous crop debris and the sclerotia, to control Southern blight at least 6 inch deep as far ahead of planting as possible.
  • Seeding into warm, well-prepared soils.
  • Planting certified seed of resistant varieties.
  • Controlling weeds.
  • The removal of virus-affected plants.
  • Spray any one of the systemic insecticide like Monocrotophos @0.1% to control the vector.
  • When resistant varieties are not used, it is important that root-knot nematode control practices be followed since nematodes increase plant susceptibility to Fusarium wilt.

 

 

Source-

  • TamilNadu Agritech Portal

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