In Andhra Pradesh cultivating in an area of 8,953 hectares producing 1.34 lakh tons (including Knol-khol)
Scientific name-Brassica oleracea var. capitata.
Climatic requirement of cabbage
The cabbage thrives in a relatively cool moist climate. It is grown mainly as a winter crop. Yields good between the day minimum temperature 5OC to 30OC.
Season for cabbage cultivation
Early crop August-September. Late crop September-October.
Soil requirement for cabbage
It is grown under varied soil conditions. Sandy loam soils considered best for early crop. But where a higher yield is the main criterion, caly or silt loam soil is preferred. It does not grow well in highly acidic soils. The optimum pH range for cabbage is between 5.5 and 6.5.
Varieties of Cabbage
Head compact and round (Ball head) early variety. Crops in 60-65 days. Small and compact in habit, stem is short with few outer leaves, leaves cup shaped.
2. Early Drum Head
Heads are flat, big in size, early sowing variety. Crops in 60-70 days.
3. Pride of India
Heads big sized round shaped. Weighing 1.5 to 2.0 kg. Comes to harvest with 60-80 days. Early cropping variety.
4. Pari Rani Gole
S1 hybrid. Head compact and hard. Shelf life more crops in 85-90 days.
5. Pusa Drum Head
Curds are compact, flat in its middle. Midseason variety
6. Late Drum Head
Head big in size, round, comes to harvest within 100-200 days.
7. Pusa Mukta
It has short stalk, flattish round medium sized heads and light green outer leaves. It is resistant to black rot.
8. Hari Rani Gol
12. Sri Ganesh Gol
Seeds and Sowing time for cabbage
700-800g of seed for varieties and 300-500g of seed for hybrids are required to transplant one hectare or a nursery raised in 100 sq meters with a seed rate of 700-800 g will be sufficient to transplant one hectare. Treat the seed with Triram 3 g/kg of seed. Plough the soil 4-5 times to get a fine tilth. Apply 5-6 tons of farmyard manure in 100 sq meters area and incorporate it in the soil. Prepare raised nursery beds (10-15 cm height) with 4 metres length and 1 metre width. Mix the seed with sand or compost and then sow the seed uniformly on the nursery bed. Then cover the seed bed with dry leaves, to avoid shifting of the seeds from one place to another while giving irrigation.
Remove all the dried material from the nursery bed, after plant attains 1 cm height with 2-3 leaves. Drench the soil with 0.2% Copper fungicide as against the diseases. Spray Malathion @ 2 ½ ml/lit of water to control leaf-eating a caterpillar.
Plough the land 4 or 5 times till to get a fine tilth, 10-15 days before transplanting of seedlings. Prepare furrows and ridges at 60 cm distance for long duration varieties and 45 cm for short duration varieties. Plant to plant distance 45 cm and then transplant 25-30 days old seedlings.
Best fertilizers for Cabbage
Apply farmyard manure @ 40-50 tons/ha, 150-200 kg/ha Superphosphate and 100 kg/ha muriate of potash in the lat puddle and incorporate into the soil.
Apply 60-80 kg N/ha in three equal split doses i.e. first dose 25-30 days after transplanting, the second dose 50-60 days after transplanting and the third dose 75-80 days after transplanting. Irrigate the crop immediately after fertilizer application.
The plants will establish within 15 days. Weeding and hoeing should be done once within 20-25 days after transplanting and second time 45-60 days after transplanting. Deep hoeing should be avoided.
Irrigation of cabbage
Irrigate the soil whenever the top soil moisture finds dried up to 5-6 cm depth. Light soils weekly once, heavy soils 10 days interval irrigate the crop.
Browning (Brown Rot or Red Rot)
This is caused by Boron deficiency. The trouble first appears as water-soaked areas in the stems and on the surface of the curd. Later, these areas change into a rusty brown colour. Browning is associated with hollow stems, other symptoms are changes in the colour of foliage, thickening, brittleness and downward curling of older leaves.
Application of Borox at the rate of 10-15 kg/ha on acid soils controls browning. On alkaline and neutral soils, larger quantity should be used.
Development of small heads or buttons is called buttoning. Deficiency of nigrogen is the main cause of bottoning. So care should be taken in selection of the suitable varieties in the season and timely application of nitrogen.s
Bling cauliflower plants are those without terminal buds. The leaves which develop are large, thick, leathery, dark green. Blindness is due to a low temperature when the plants are small or due to damage to the terminal bud during handling of the plant or injury by insects and pests.
It is harvested when the head is of suitable size, firm but tender. In the case of delaying of harvest protect the heads from sunlight by covering the heads with the lower leaves.
Pests of Cabbage and their control:
1.Diamond Back Moth (Plutella xylostella)
Caterpillars feed on under the surface of leaves and bite holes on leaves and cause serious damage. Affected leaves present a withered appearance. In severe cases, the leaves are skeletonised.
Spray Malathion 0.1% (2 ml/lit of water) or 50 WP carbaryl 0.15% (3 g/lit of water) or 40 EC Monocrotophos 0.04% (1.0 ml/lit of water) or 35 EC Endosulfan 0.05% (1.5 ml/lit of water) or 50 EC fenetrothion 0.05% (1.0 ml/lit of water).
2.Borer (Hellula undailis)
The larva webs the leaves or bore into stem, stalk or leaf veins and cause damage by making the produce unfit for consumption. They also bore into the cabbage head.
Spray Malathion 0.1% (2 ml/lit of water) or Carbaryl 0.15% (3 g/lit of water) or Endosulfan 0.05% (1.5 ml/lit of water).
3. Mustard Sawfly (Athalia lugens proxima)
Grubs alone are destructive. The bite holes into leaves and prefer young growth, leaves are skeletonised completely heavy defoliation takes places in severe cases.
Spray Dimethoate 0.06% (2 ml/lit of water) or Endosulfan 0.07% 2 ml/lit of water.
4. Painted Bug (Bagrada cruciferarum)
Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves, shoots, resulting into wilting and affect the vigour of the plant.
SprayMalathion 0.1% (2 ml/lit of water) or 30 EC Dimethoate 0.06% (2 ml/lit of water) or 35 EC Phosalone 0.05% (1.5 ml/lit of water).
5. Leaf Webber (Crocidolomia binotalis)
Leaves are skeletonized by the larvae which remain on the under surface of leaves in webs and feed on them. They also attach flower buds and pods.
Spray Monocrotophos 0.04% (1.0 ml/lit of water) or Malathion 0.1% (2 ml/lit of water).
6. Green Semilooper (Trichoplusia ni)
Larva bites holes and causes severe damage by skeletonising the leaves.
Spray application of Endosulfan 0.07% (2 ml/lit) or Quinalphos 0.05% (2 ml/lit)
7. Aphids (Brevicolve brassicae, Lipaphis erysimi)
They suck the sap from the under surface of leaves and cause damage.
Spray Melathion 0.1% @ 2 ml/lit of water, or Dimethoate 0.06% 2 ml/lit of water.
8. Tobacoo Caterpillar (Spodoptera litura)
Caterpillars are active during night time and feed on leaves fresh growth. Young caterpillars skeletonise the tender leaves. Later broad leaves are completely eaten.
Before head formation spray 100 EC Phosphamidon 0.05% (0.5 ml/lit of water) or endosulfan 0.05% (1.5 ml/lit of water) or Carbaryl 0.15% (3 g/lit of water) after head formation spray Malathion 0.05% Carbaryl 0.15% (2 ml/lit of water).
Diseases of Cabbage and their control
1. Bacterial Blackrot (Xanthomonas campestris)
Blighting of leaves from margin to midrib in ‘V’ shape and blackening of vascular bundles are the main symptoms of this disease.
Seed treatment with hot water 50-52OC for 20 minutes or soaking in streptocycline (100 ppm) for 2 hours effectively control the disease under field conditions, rouge out infected plants and drenching the soil with Formalin (1 part in 250 parts of water) is also effective.
2. White Rust (Albugo candida)
Located white rust like pustules is seen on leaves and stems. When fully developed these pustules have a powdery consistency and hypertrophy or stem and flowering parts takes place.
Spray Dithane M-45 0.2% at 10-14 days intervals or 2 to 3 sprays of 0.4% Blitox or any other Copper Oxychloride preparation at 10 days interval after disease appearance.
3. Club Rot (Plasmodiphoria brassical)
Roots enlarge to form “Clubs” (Spindle-shaped). This is followed by the secondary invasion of soft rot bacteria forming materials toxic to plant and finally wilting takes place.
Avoid infected fields. Treat the seedlings with Mercuric Chloride solution (1:1500) at the rate of 125 ml per 100 seedlings at the time of transplanting.
4. Damping Off (Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp.)
The stem of seedlings softened at the ground level, due to infection, the infected plants collapse and finally die.
Treat seeds with thiram 2-3 g/kg sees. Drench seedlings in nursery beds with Captan (1:1500) in water.
- Dr Y.S.R. Horticulture University, Andhra Pradesh.