Tuberose is half-hardy, herbaceous perennial, bulbous plant. It is classed as a monocotyledon, leaves often lighter green in colour. It is an erect herb, 60-120 cm high with stout and short bulbs. Bulbs are made of scales and leaf bases and stem remains concealed within scales. Fibrous roots are mainly adventitious and shallow. Leaves are basal, 6-9 in number, 30- 45 cm long, about 1.3 cm wide, linear, grass like foliage, bright green, reddish near the base. The foliage is narrow at the base and wider at the top and is arranged in a rosette at the base. Tuberose inflorescences (spikes) bear 25 ± 10 pairs of florets which open acropetally (i.e., from base to top of the spike).
Tuberose is a cross pollinated crop. Polianthes genus contains three types of flowers.One of them is single flower type having basic chromosome number n = x = 30 and 2n = 60, which is female fertile used in perfumery industry and breeding programme as the female parent. The other two are semi -double and double flower types and generally used as cut flower. Flowers have a funnel shaped perianth and are fragrant, tubular and waxy white, about 25 mm long, the tube bent only near the base, filaments attached on upper part of corolla, fragrant, in long terminal racemes. Stamens are six in number, ovary 3 locular, ovules numerous and fruit is a capsule.
- Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Ela, Old Goa, Goa