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Banana Panama Wilt – Kisan Suvidha
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Banana Panama Wilt

Banana Panama Wilt

Banana Panama Wilt:Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense

Symptom:
  • Externally, the first obvious signs of disease in most varieties are wilting and a light yellow colouring of the lower leaves, most prominent around the margins. They eventually turn a bright yellow colour with dead leaf margins.
  • Splitting of pseudostem base is a characteristic symptom.
  • Internally, symptoms first become obvious in the xylem (water conducting) vessels of the roots and the rhizome. These turn a reddish-brown to maroon colour as the fungus grows through the tissues.
  • When a cross-section is cut, the discolouration appears in a circular pattern around the centre of the rhizome where the infection concentrates due to the arrangement of the vessels. As symptoms progress into the pseudo-stem, continuous lines of discolouration are evident when the plant is cut longitudinally.
Identification of pathogen:
  • The casual organism is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cubense.
  • This pathogen contains colonies of white to purple pigmented mycelium. Hyphae are septate and hyaline.  Conidiaphores are short and simple and having macroconidia and microconidia
  • Macroconidia usually produced abundantly, slightly sickle-shaped, thin-walled, with an attenuated apical cell and a foot-shaped basal cell. They are three to 5-septate measuring 23-54 x 3-4.5 µm.
  • Microconidia are abundant, mostly non-septate, ellipsoidal to cylindrical, slightly curved or straight, 5-12 x 2.3-3.5 µm occurring in false heads from short monophialides.
  • The disease is soil borne and the fungus enters the roots through the fine laterals.
  • The incidence is high in acid alluvial soils.
  • The pathogen is easily spread by infected rhizomes or suckers, farm implements or vehicles, irrigation water.
Management:
Cultural method
  • Practice proper crop rotation with paddy/sugar cane once or twice followed by banana for 2-3 cycles
  • Plant wilt resistant cultivars  such as Poovan and Nendran in endemic areas
  • Proper care should be given when planting susceptible cultivators such Rasthali, Monthan, Karpuravalli, Kadali, Pachanadan by selecting healthy suckers from disease fields
  • Remove and destroy infested plant material after harvest
  • When only 1-3 plants are infected, kill and chop up the diseased plants and stew all the material in water at a temperature of at least 70 deg C for 30 minutes.
  • Grow healthy plants with proper fertilisation, irrigation, weed control
  • Provide good drainage especially during rainy season
  • Soil application of rice chaffy grain or dried banana leaf formulation or well-decomposed compost around the plants
Mechanical method
  • Machinery and equipment should be treated with a  sanitary solution such as Farmcleanse®
  • Footwear, which may have contacted banana plants or soil around banana plants elsewhere, should not be worn on the farm.
  • Provide mechanical barriers in and around the infected plants
Biological method
  • Application Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2.5kg/ha bactericide can also be applied along with farmyard manure and neem cake.
  • About 60 mg of Pseudomonas fluorescens (in a capsule) can be applied in a 10 cm deep hole made in the corm.
  • Application of bio control agents like Trichoderma viride @ 25 g for 4 times once at the time of planting in the planting pit and remaining doses at third, fifth and seventh month after planting
  • Application of T.harzianum Th-10, as dried banana leaf formulation @ 10g/plant in basal + top dressing on 2,4, and 6 months after planting

Chemical method

  • Application of 2 per cent of Carbendazim as injection of Carbendazim 50 ml capsule application
  • Paring (pralinge removal of roots and outer skin of corm) and dipping of the suckers in clay slurry and sprinkled with Carbofuran granules at 40g/corm
  • Soil drenching of Carbendazim 0.2 per cent solution alternated with Propiconozole 0.1% around the pseudostem at bi-monthly intervals starting from five months after planting
  • Application of urea + sugarcane trash (250g/pit) followed by lime (1Kg/pit) and neem cake (1-2Kg/pit)
  • Application of neem cake @ 250 Kg/ha was most effective in controlling Fusarium wilt in Rasthali cultivar.

 

Source-

  • TamilNadu Agritech Portal

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