Banana Panama Wilt:Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense
- Externally, the first obvious signs of disease in most varieties are wilting and a light yellow colouring of the lower leaves, most prominent around the margins. They eventually turn a bright yellow colour with dead leaf margins.
- Splitting of pseudostem base is a characteristic symptom.
- Internally, symptoms first become obvious in the xylem (water conducting) vessels of the roots and the rhizome. These turn a reddish-brown to maroon colour as the fungus grows through the tissues.
- When a cross-section is cut, the discolouration appears in a circular pattern around the centre of the rhizome where the infection concentrates due to the arrangement of the vessels. As symptoms progress into the pseudo-stem, continuous lines of discolouration are evident when the plant is cut longitudinally.
Identification of pathogen:
- The casual organism is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cubense.
- This pathogen contains colonies of white to purple pigmented mycelium. Hyphae are septate and hyaline. Conidiaphores are short and simple and having macroconidia and microconidia
- Macroconidia usually produced abundantly, slightly sickle-shaped, thin-walled, with an attenuated apical cell and a foot-shaped basal cell. They are three to 5-septate measuring 23-54 x 3-4.5 µm.
- Microconidia are abundant, mostly non-septate, ellipsoidal to cylindrical, slightly curved or straight, 5-12 x 2.3-3.5 µm occurring in false heads from short monophialides.
- The disease is soil borne and the fungus enters the roots through the fine laterals.
- The incidence is high in acid alluvial soils.
- The pathogen is easily spread by infected rhizomes or suckers, farm implements or vehicles, irrigation water.
- Practice proper crop rotation with paddy/sugar cane once or twice followed by banana for 2-3 cycles
- Plant wilt resistant cultivars such as Poovan and Nendran in endemic areas
- Proper care should be given when planting susceptible cultivators such Rasthali, Monthan, Karpuravalli, Kadali, Pachanadan by selecting healthy suckers from disease fields
- Remove and destroy infested plant material after harvest
- When only 1-3 plants are infected, kill and chop up the diseased plants and stew all the material in water at a temperature of at least 70 deg C for 30 minutes.
- Grow healthy plants with proper fertilisation, irrigation, weed control
- Provide good drainage especially during rainy season
- Soil application of rice chaffy grain or dried banana leaf formulation or well-decomposed compost around the plants
- Machinery and equipment should be treated with a sanitary solution such as Farmcleanse®
- Footwear, which may have contacted banana plants or soil around banana plants elsewhere, should not be worn on the farm.
- Provide mechanical barriers in and around the infected plants
- Application Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2.5kg/ha bactericide can also be applied along with farmyard manure and neem cake.
- About 60 mg of Pseudomonas fluorescens (in a capsule) can be applied in a 10 cm deep hole made in the corm.
- Application of bio control agents like Trichoderma viride @ 25 g for 4 times once at the time of planting in the planting pit and remaining doses at third, fifth and seventh month after planting
- Application of T.harzianum Th-10, as dried banana leaf formulation @ 10g/plant in basal + top dressing on 2,4, and 6 months after planting
- Application of 2 per cent of Carbendazim as injection of Carbendazim 50 ml capsule application
- Paring (pralinge removal of roots and outer skin of corm) and dipping of the suckers in clay slurry and sprinkled with Carbofuran granules at 40g/corm
- Soil drenching of Carbendazim 0.2 per cent solution alternated with Propiconozole 0.1% around the pseudostem at bi-monthly intervals starting from five months after planting
- Application of urea + sugarcane trash (250g/pit) followed by lime (1Kg/pit) and neem cake (1-2Kg/pit)
- Application of neem cake @ 250 Kg/ha was most effective in controlling Fusarium wilt in Rasthali cultivar.
- TamilNadu Agritech Portal