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Wheat diseases and their control - Kisan Suvidha
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Wheat diseases and their control

Wheat diseases

Wheat diseases and their control

Major wheat diseases are:-

1.Wheat Leaf Rust /Brown Rust: Puccinia recondita

wheat leaf rust

Symptom:
  • The postules are circular or slightly elliptical, smaller than those of stem rust, usually, do not coalesce, and contain masses of orange to orange-brown Urediospores
  • Infection sites primarily are found on the upper surfaces of leaves and leaf sheaths and occasionally on the neck and awns
  • Survival: Both survive on stubbles and volunteer crops
  • Alternate host: Thalictrum sp.
  • Spread: uredospores from hills.

 

 

Management:
  • Mixed cropping with suitable crops.
  • Avoid excess dose of nitrogenous fertilizers.
  • Spray Zineb at 2.5 kg/ha or Propioconazole @ 0.1 %.
  • Grow resistant varieties like PBW 343, PBW 550, PBW 17

 

2.Wheat Stem Rust: Puccinia graminis tritici

Wheat stem rustSymptom:
  • Pustules (containing masses of urediospores) are dark reddish brown – occur on both sides of the leaves, on the stems, and on the spikes
  • Pustules are usually separate and scattered, heavy infections -coalesce
  • Prior to pustule formation, “flecks” may appear. Before the spore masses break through the epidermis, the infection sites feel rough to the touch
  • As the spore masses break through, the surface tissues take on a ragged and torn appearance
  • Survival: Both survive on stubbles and volunteer crops
  • Alternate host: Berberis spp.
  • Spread: uredospores from hills.
stem rust life cycle
Management:
  • Mixed cropping and crop rotation
  • Avoid excess nitrogen
  • Sulphur dusting @ 35-40 kg/ha
  • Mancozeb @ 2g/lit
  • Resistant varieties
    • Lerma Rojo, Safed Lerma,
    • Sonalika and Chotil

 

3.Wheat Stripe Rust/Yellow Rust:Puccinia striiformis

Wheat yellow rust

Symptom:
  • The pustules of stripe rust, which, contain yellow to orange-yellow urediospores, usually form narrow stripes on the leaves
  • Pustules also can be found on leaf sheaths, necks, and glumes.
  • Survival: Both survive on stubbles and volunteer crops
  • Alternate host: unknown
  • Spread: uredospores from the hill.

yellow rust life cycle

Management:
  • Mixed cropping and crop rotation
  • Avoid excess “N”
  • Sulphur dusting @ 35-40 kg/ha
  • Mancozeb @ 2g/lit
  • Resistant varieties
    • Lerma Rojo, Safed Lerma,
    • Sonalika and Chotil

 

4.Wheat Loose Smut: Ustilago tritici

Wheat Loose SmutSymptom:
  • The entire inflorescence, except the rachis, is replaced by masses of smut spores.
  • These black teliospores often are blown away by the wind, leaving only the bare rachis and remnants of other floral structures.
Management:
  • Treat the seed with Vitavax @ 2g/kg seed before sowing.
  • Burry the infected ear heads in the soil so that secondary spread is avoided.

 yellow rust life cycle

 

 

5.Wheat Powdery mildew: Erysiphe graminis var. tritici

Wheat Powdery mildew

Symptom:
  • Greyish white powdery growth appears on the leaf, sheath, stem and floral parts.
  • Powdery growth later become black lesion and cause drying of leaves and other parts.
Management:
  • Spray Wettable sulphur 0.2% or Carbendazim @ 500 g/ha.

 

 

powdery mildew life cycle

 

 

Source-

  • TamilNadu Agritech Portal

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