Pulses are a rich source of protein and form an important constituent of human diet. The consumption of cereals and pulses (dal) in the daily diet is considered nutritionally balanced. The cereals being poor in lysine is well complemented by the richness of the same in pulses. On the other hand, cereals are rich in methionine as compared to pulses. The availability of pulses (dal) per adult per day at present is only 36 g in our state as against the minimum requirement of 50g /adult /day. These crops are endowed with many desirable characters viz; brief, restorative (soil fertility building crops), low water requiring and highly suitable to be grown in mixed /intercropping systems and also as a catch crop to scavenge the residual soil moisture and fertility.
However, pulses are very exact in their requirement like neutral soil pH (liming acid soils), phosphate and sulphur manuring, use of rhizobium culture and molybdenum for seed treatment for better nodule activity to achieve maximum yield. The general strategy which needs to be followed to boost pulse production and productivity of rabi pulses are as follows.
- Expansion of pulse area in the pre-rabi, rabi and summer season where scope exists.
- Growing of these pulses in the cold prone Mayurbhanj district particularly in the moisture retentive heavy soils as cultivated crops or as a paira crop.
- Use of improved varieties and growing early maturing varieties under rainfed conditions.
- Sowing at the appropriate time.
- Growing of pulses in mixed and intercropping systems.
- Inoculation with bio-fertilizer and application of balanced fertilizer (N, P, K & S).
- Irrigation at a critical stage (flowering and pod filling stage).
- The introduction of new high yielding and resistant varieties.
- Efficient plant protection measures.
- Liming acid soils once in every three years
Varieties of Black gram and Green gram
Many short duration improved varieties of pulses are available for growing in different seasons. There are local varieties which have also established in the cropping pattern in different areas. The crops and varieties have to be chosen according to the cropping pattern, moisture retentive capacity of the soil and local preference. Some information on the improved varieties of pulses that are recommended for the district is given below.
|Approximate duration in days|
|Crop/ Variety||Pre-Rabi (Sept-Oct)||Pre-Summer (Mid Jan to 1st week of Feb)||Remarks|
|PDM 54||70||60- 65||Resistant to YMV|
|Dhauli||70||–||Tolerant to YMV|
|PDM 11||–||60- 65|
|Durga(OBGG 52)||70||60 – 65||Resistant to YMV, long pods|
|Samrat(PDM84-139)||65 – 75||65– 70||Tolerant to YMV|
|K 851||–||60- 65||Tolerant to YMV|
|Sarala||85||65-70||Resistant to YMV and PM|
|Prasad||70||–||Tolerant to leaf crinkle & leaf curl|
|PU 30||65-75||65-70||Resistant to YMV, PM, leaf spot|
Soil and field preparation
These pulses can be grown in the rabi/summer season on a variety of soils provided drainage is satisfactory. Greengram and black gram have moderate salt tolerance, and these two crops can be grown in heavy and light textured soil if the initial moisture is adequate to establish the crop. The fields should be ploughed immediately after the harvest of the previous crop, and as far as possible a good tilth is obtained for efficient sowing in lines.
Seed treatment with appropriate Rhizobium culture (bacteria culture) before sowing greatly helps in better germination, emergence, and nodulation, consequently increasing the availability of more biologically fixed nitrogen. The yield of all the legume plants is directly proportional to the number of nodules. More the nodules more shall be the yield. Inoculation of seeds with Rhizobium culture should invariably be done every time of sowing of a legume crop. Suspend 200g of Rhizobium culture and 250g phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in 600 ml of water and mix thoroughly. Now pour the slurry on 10 kg of seed drop by drop and mix with the hands till the uniform coating of culture is obtained on all seeds. The addition of molybdenum in the form of Ammonium or Sodium molybdate @ three g/10kg seeds at the time of seed treatment with Rhizobium culture facilitates better nodulation. Dry the treated seeds in the shade on the clean cloth, paper or polythene sheet and sow them immediately, preferably in the afternoon.
Now pour the slurry on 10 kg of seed drop by drop and mix with the hands till the uniform coating of culture is obtained on all seeds. The addition of molybdenum in the form of Ammonium or Sodium molybdate @ three g/10kg seeds at the time of seed treatment with Rhizobium culture facilitates better nodulation. Dry the treated seeds in the shade on the clean cloth, paper or polythene sheet and sow them immediately, preferably in the afternoon.
For obtaining a better result and keeping the crop free from seed borne diseases, like damping off of seedlings and seedling blight, seeds should be treated with the seed dressing fungicides like vita vax power 1.5g or (carbendazim 1.0 g + thiram 1.5g) per kg of seed. Greengram, black gram, and cowpea under intensive cropping should be treated with carbosulfan 25 EC @ 0.2% one week before Rhizobium treatment against root-knot and reniform nematodes.
Sow the seeds in lines soon after land preparation and compact the soil by laddering so that the seeds come in intimate contact with soil which will hasten germination. On lands where the soil is likely to dry up at harvest, pre-harvest (paira) sowing should be done; seeds may be soaked overnight if the soil has low moisture content to hasten germination. Line sowing facilitates interculture to kill weeds. Early control of weeds, within 2 to 3 weeks of germination, lessens competition for nutrients and water and helps growth. The green gram and black gram crops should be sown at (25 x 10) cm spacing with a seed rate of 25 kg/ha.
Pulses respond admirably to liberal doses of phosphate application. A starter dose of 20 kg N/ha helps the the quick establishment of the crop and root nodule development. Application of 40 kg P2O5, 20 kg of K2O and 20 kg S/ha greatly increases the yield of these pulses and also benefit the succeeding crop.
Control of weeds within 2 to 3 weeks not only prevents exhausting of nutrients from the soil by weeds but also conserves moisture and helps in quick growth and development of crops. Line sowing will facilitate hoeing and weeding operations between the lines.
Crops sown in pre-rabi season are mostly grown on residual soil moisture without irrigation. However, in the pre-summer season, these crops require irrigation. Irrigate the crops at least twice at flowering and pod development stage as these are the most critical stages for irrigation.
Generally, defoliators attack suddenly in large numbers and damage the crops. Strict vigilance on the incidence of these pests can help to take timely control measures, most effectively with minimum expenditure. Prophylactic measures like clean cultivation, early planting, seed treatment are cheap and are widely advocated. Field control of insect pests and diseases should be done in time by integrating suitable physical, mechanical, biological, cultural and chemical management strategies
SOME IMPORTANT POINTS
- Seed treatment with rhizobium and PSB culture
- Line sowing and weeding within 2-3 weeks
- Phosphate fertilization @ 40 kg P2O5/ha
- Irrigation at flowering and pod formation.
- Indian Institute of Pulses Research